Claustrum circuit components for top–down input processing and cortical broadcast
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum is required for top–down cognitive control of action. By virtue of its widespread cortical connectivity, the claustrum is anatomically situated to process and broadcast top–down signals from ACC to downstream cortices. To gain a deeper understanding of claustrum processing mechanisms, it is first critical to identify the projection neuron subtypes within claustrum, the intrinsic and extrinsic components regulating their firing, and the differential innervation of cortex by projection neuron subtypes. To this end, we used whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in adult mouse brain slices to distinguish two spiny projection neuron subtypes in claustrum, referred to as type I and II neurons, and three aspiny interneuron subtypes, referred to as type III, IV, and V neurons. In response to optogenetic ACC afferent stimulation, type II neurons preferentially burst fire relative to type I neurons. This burst firing is calcium-dependent and is optimized by voltage-gated potassium channels. Finally, we find that visual cortices, parietal association cortex, and ACC receive input from type I and II neurons in differing proportions. These data reveal the diversity of claustrum neurons and mechanisms by which claustrum processes ACC command for spatiotemporal coordination of the cerebral cortex.
KeywordsAnterior cingulate cortex Visual cortices Parietal association cortex Burst fire Membrane properties
This work has been supported by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grants K22AA021414 and R01AA024845 (B.N.M.), a Whitehall Foundation Grant 2014-12-68 (B.N.M.), National Institute of General Medical Sciences Grant T32GM008181 (M.G.W.), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Grant T32NS063391 (M.G.W.), and National Institute of Mental Health Grant F31MH112350 (M.G.W.).
MGW and BNM designed research, generated and analyzed data, and wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no financial and non-financial competing interests.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
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