The lateral preoptic area and ventral pallidum embolden behavior
- 61 Downloads
While recently completing a study of the effects of stimulating the lateral preoptic area (LPO) and ventral pallidum (VP) on locomotion and other movements, we also noticed LPO and VP effects on motivational drive and threat tolerance. Here, we have investigated these latter effects by testing conditioned place preference (CPP), behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the willingness of sated rats to occupy a harshly lit open field center to acquire sweet pellets, a measure of threat tolerance, following infusions of vehicle or bicuculline (bic) into the LPO and VP. LPO-bic infusions robustly increased total locomotion, and, in direct proportion, occupancy of both the harshly lit field center and open arms of the EPM. LPO bic also generated CPP, but did not increase sweet pellet ingestion. These effects were attenuated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, whether given individually or as a cocktail and systemically or infused bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens. VP-bic infusions did not increase total locomotion, but preferentially increased field center occupancy. VP-bic-infused rats compulsively ingested sweet pellets and did so even under the spotlight, whereas harsh illumination suppressed pellet ingestion in the control groups. VP bic produced CPP and increased open arm occupancy on the EPM. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with dopamine receptor antagonists given systemically or as bilateral infusions into the VP, except for % distance in the field center (by D1 or D2 antagonists) and pellet ingestion (by D1 antagonist). Thus, boldness generated in association with LPO activation is tightly tied to locomotor activation and, as is locomotion itself, strongly DA dependent, whereas that accompanying stimulation of the VP is independent of locomotor activation and, at least in part, DA signaling. Furthermore, respective emboldened behaviors elicited from neither LPO nor VP could clearly be attributed to goal pursuit. Rather, emboldening of behavior seems more to be a fixed action response not fundamentally different than previously for reported locomotion, pivoting, backing, gnawing, and eating elicited by basal forebrain stimulation.
KeywordsBasal forebrain Anxiety Locomotion Decision Dopamine
Conditioned place preference
Dopamine D1 receptor
Dopamine D2 receptor
Elevated plus maze
Lateral preoptic area
- VP bi
VP, infused bilaterally
- VP uni
VP, infused unilaterally
Ventral tegmental area
The work was supported by USPHS NIH grant NS-23805 to DSZ. RAR received support from USPHS NIH grant T32 GM008306.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Human Participants and/or Animals
There were no human subjects. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (Harlan, Indianapolis, IN) weighing 250–375 g were used in accordance with policy mandated in the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm) provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services with oversight by the Saint Louis University Animal Care Committee. Veterinary care was provided by the Saint Louis University Department of Comparative Medicine.
All authors read and approved the final submitted manuscript.
There were no human subjects.
- Groenewegen HJ, Berendse HW, Wolters JG, Lohman AHM (1991) The anatomical relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striatopallidal system, the thalamus and the amygdala: evidence for a parallel organization. In: Uylings HBM, Van Eden CG, De Bruin JPC, Corner MA, Feenstra MGP (eds) Progress in brain research, 85. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 95–118Google Scholar
- Heimer L, Wilson RD (1975) The subcortical projections of allocortex. Similarities in the neural associations of the hippocampus, the piriform cortex and the neocortex. In: Golgi centennial symposium proceedings. Edited by Santini M: 177–196. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Heimer L, Van Hoesen GW, Trimble M, Zahm DS (2008) Anatomy of neuropsychiatry: The new anatomy of the basal forebrain and its implications for neuropsychiatric illness. Academic Press/Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Mitchell JB, Gratton A (1996) Involvement of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in sexual behaviors: implications for the neurobiology of motivation. Rev Neurosci 5:317–329Google Scholar
- Nauta WJH (1986) Ciruitous connections linking cerebral cortex, limbic system and corpus striatum. In: Doane BK, Livingston KE (eds) Limbic system: functional organization and clinical disorders. Raven Press, New York, pp 43–54Google Scholar
- Pessoa L (2017) A network model of the Emotional Brain. Trends Cogn Sci 5:337–357Google Scholar
- Pinker S (2003) The blank slate. The modern denial of human nature. Penguin Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Reichard RA, Parsley KP, Zahm DS (2016) Comparison of stimulations of the lateral preoptic area and ventral pallidum using measures of reward, anxiety and ingestion. Soc Neurosci Abstr 453.23Google Scholar
- Reichard RA, Subramanian S, Desta MT, Sura T, Becker ML, Ghobadi CW, Parsley KP, Zahm DS (2017) Abundant collateralization of temporal lobe projections to the accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, central amygdala and lateral septum. Brain Struct Funct 222:1971–1988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roberts DCS, Koob GF, Klonoff P, Fibiger HC (1980) Extinction and recovery of cocaine self-administration following 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 224:662–673Google Scholar
- Sizemore GM, Co C, Hemby S, Koves TR, Smith JE (1998) The effects of 6-OHDA lesions of the ventral pallidum on cocaine self administration. College on Problems of Drug Dependence Abstracts, 134Google Scholar
- Swanson LW (1987) Limbic system. In: Adelman G, Smith BH (eds) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, vol 2, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1053–1055Google Scholar
- Swanson LW, Kohler C, Bjorkland A (1987a) The limbic region. I. The septohippocampal system. In: Bjorkland A, Hokfelt T, Swanson LW (eds) Integrated systems of the CNS, Part I. Hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, retina handbook of chemical neuroanatomy, vol 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 125–277Google Scholar
- Zahm DS, Parsley KP, Schwartz ZM, Cheng AY (2013a) On lateral septum-Like characteristics of outputs from the accumbal hedonic “hotspot” of Peciña and Berridge with commentary on the transitional nature of basal forebrain “boundaries”. J Comp Neurol 521(1):50–68CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Zahm DS, Schwartz ZM, Parsley KP (2013b) Anxiolytic effects of lateral preoptic area (LPO) activation. Soc Neurosci Abstr 393.16Google Scholar
- Zahm DS, Stevenson HS, Schwartz ZM, Parsley KP (2014b) Activation of ventral pallidum versus lateral preoptic area: double dissociation by threat discounting and locomotion. Soc Neurosci Abstr 267.11Google Scholar