How interindividual differences in brain anatomy shape reading accuracy
- 384 Downloads
The capacity to read develops throughout intensive academic learning and training. Several studies have investigated the impact of reading on the brain, and particularly how the anatomy of the brain changes with reading acquisition. In the present study, we investigated the converse issue, namely whether and how reading acquisition is constrained by the anatomy of the brain. Using multimodal MRI, we found that (a) the pattern (continuous or interrupted sulcus) of the posterior part of the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus (OTS) hosting the visual word form area (VWFA) predicts reading skills in adults; that (b) this effect is modulated by the age of reading acquisition; and that (c) the length of the OTS sulcal interruption is associated with reading skills. Because the sulcal pattern is determined in utero, our findings suggest that individual difference in reading skills can be traced back to early stages of brain development in addition to the well-established socioeconomic and educational factors.
KeywordsReading VWFA MRI Neurodevelopment SES
We thank S. F. Pegado, P. Ventura, G. Nunes Filho, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, R. Kolinsky, J. Morais, and L. Cohen for participant recruitment.
AC, GB, SD, and OH designed the study. AJ, LB, and SD provided MRI and cognitive data. MR, AC, GB, AJ, J-FM, and ZYS analyzed the data. AC, GB, SD, OH, J-FM, and MR interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript.
- Cachia A, Borst G, Tissier C, Fisher C, Plaze M, Gay O, Riviere D, Gogtay N, Giedd J, Mangin JF, Houde O, Raznahan A (2016) Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development. Dev Cogn Neurosci 19:122–127. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.02.011 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Dehay C, Giroud P, Berland M, Killackey H, Kennedy H (1996) Contribution of thalamic input to the specification of cytoarchitectonic cortical fields in the primate: effects of bilateral enucleation in the fetal monkey on the boundaries, dimensions, and gyrification of striate and extrastriate cortex. J Comp Neurol 367(1):70–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dubois J, Hertz-Pannier L, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Cointepas Y, Le Bihan D (2006) Assessment of the early organization and maturation of infants’ cerebral white matter fiber bundles: a feasibility study using quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. Neuroimage 30(4):1121–1132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dubois J, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Perrin M, Mangin JF, Cointepas Y, Duchesnay E, Le Bihan D, Hertz-Pannier L (2008) Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging. Hum Brain Mapp 29(1):14–27. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20363 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gomez J, Barnett MA, Natu V, Mezer A, Palomero-Gallagher N, Weiner KS, Amunts K, Zilles K, Grill-Spector K (2017) Microstructural proliferation in human cortex is coupled with the development of face processing. Science 355(6320):68–71. doi: 10.1126/science.aag0311 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lee VE, Burkam DT (2002) Inequality at the starting gate: social background differences in achievement as children begin school. Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Myers CA, Vandermosten M, Farris EA, Hancock R, Gimenez P, Black JM, Casto B, Drahos M, Tumber M, Hendren RL, Hulme C, Hoeft F (2014) White matter morphometric changes uniquely predict children’s reading acquisition. Psychol Sci 25(10):1870–1883. doi: 10.1177/0956797614544511 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ono M, Kubik S, Abarnathey CD (1990) Atlas of the cerebral sulci. Georg Thieme, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Pegado F, Comerlato E, Ventura F, Jobert A, Nakamura K, Buiatti M, Ventura P, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Kolinsky R, Morais J, Braga LW, Cohen L, Dehaene S (2014) Timing the impact of literacy on visual processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(49):E5233–E5242. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1417347111 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Raizada RD, Kishiyama MM (2010) Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to levelling the playing field. Front Hum Neurosci 4(3):1000Google Scholar