Meta-analytic connectivity modeling of the human superior temporal sulcus
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical region for multiple neural processes in the human brain Hein and Knight (J Cogn Neurosci 20(12): 2125–2136, 2008). To better understand the multiple functions of the STS it would be useful to know more about its consistent functional coactivations with other brain regions. We used the meta-analytic connectivity modeling technique to determine consistent functional coactivation patterns across experiments and behaviors associated with bilateral anterior, middle, and posterior anatomical STS subregions. Based on prevailing models for the cortical organization of audition and language, we broadly hypothesized that across various behaviors the posterior STS (pSTS) would coactivate with dorsal-stream regions, whereas the anterior STS (aSTS) would coactivate with ventral-stream regions. The results revealed distinct coactivation patterns for each STS subregion, with some overlap in the frontal and temporal areas, and generally similar coactivation patterns for the left and right STS. Quantitative comparison of STS subregion coactivation maps demonstrated that the pSTS coactivated more strongly than other STS subregions in the same hemisphere with dorsal-stream regions, such as the inferior parietal lobule (only left pSTS), homotopic pSTS, precentral gyrus and supplementary motor area. In contrast, the aSTS showed more coactivation with some ventral-stream regions, such as the homotopic anterior temporal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus, pars orbitalis (only right aSTS). These findings demonstrate consistent coactivation maps across experiments and behaviors for different anatomical STS subregions, which may help future studies consider various STS functions in the broader context of generalized coactivations for individuals with and without neurological disorders.
KeywordsSuperior temporal sulcus Coactivation Meta-analytic connectivity modeling Connectivity Network Dorsal stream
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant Nos. DGE-0903443 and DGE-1444316 (to LCE) as well as the Achievement Rewards for College Scientists Metropolitan Washington Chapter Noama Wheeler Scholar 2015–2016 (to LCE). This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (KL2TR000102 to PET; R01-DC03489, R01-NS052494 and R56-NS052494 to JPR), Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (2012062 to PET), the Vernon Family Trust (PET), and a PIRE grant from the NSF (OISE-0730255 to JPR). We would like to thank Rachel Acree and Elizabeth Heeg for their help working with the data.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Beauchamp MS (2011) Biological motion and multisensory integration: the role of the superior temporal sulcus. In: Adams RB (ed) The science of social vision, vol 7, pp 409–420. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Beauchamp MS (2012) Multisensory integration in the human superior temporal sulcus. In: Stein BE (ed) The new handbook of multisensory processing, pp 179–191. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
- Bonte M, Frost MA, Rutten S, Ley A, Formisano E, Goebel R (2013) Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex. Neuroimage 83:739–750. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.07.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eickhoff SB, Laird AR, Grefkes C, Wang LE, Zilles K, Fox PT (2009) Coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of neuroimaging data: a random-effects approach based on empirical estimates of spatial uncertainty. Hum Brain Mapp 30(9):2907–2926. doi: 10.1002/Hbm.20718 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Jakobs O, Langner R, Caspers S, Roski C, Cieslik EC, Zilles K, Laird AR, Fox PT, Eickhoff SB (2012) Across-study and within-subject functional connectivity of a right temporo-parietal junction subregion involved in stimulus-context integration. Neuroimage 60(4):2389–2398. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.02.037 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lahnakoski JM, Glerean E, Salmi J, Jaaskelainen I, Sams M, Hari R, Nummenmaa L (2012) Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception. Front Hum Neurosci 6. doi: 10.3389/Fnhum.2012.00233
- Laird AR, Eickhoff SB, Kurth F, Fox PM, Uecker AM, Turner JA, Robinson JL, Lancaster JL, Fox PT (2009) ALE meta-analysis workflows via the brainmap database: progress towards a probabilistic functional brain atlas. Front Neuroinform 3:23. doi: 10.3389/neuro.11.023.2009 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Leroy F, Cai Q, Bogart SL, Dubois J, Coulon O, Monzalvo K, Fischer C, Glasel H, Van der Haegen L, Benezit A, Lin CP, Kennedy DN, Ihara AS, Hertz-Pannier L, Moutard ML, Poupon C, Brysbaert M, Roberts N, Hopkins WD, Mangin JF, Dehaene-Lambertz G (2015) New human-specific brain landmark: the depth asymmetry of superior temporal sulcus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(4):1208–1213. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412389112 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Malikovic A, Amunts K, Schleicher A, Mohlberg H, Eickhoff SB, Wilms M, Palomero-Gallagher N, Armstrong E, Zilles K (2007) Cytoarchitectonic analysis of the human extrastriate cortex in the region of V5/MT+: a probabilistic, stereotaxic map of area h0c5. Cereb Cortex 17(3):562–574. doi: 10.1093/Cercor/Bhj181 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Noesselt T, Rieger JW, Schoenfeld MA, Kanowski M, Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ, Driver J (2007) Audiovisual temporal correspondence modulates human multisensory superior temporal sulcus plus primary sensory cortices. J Neurosci 27(42):11431–11441. doi: 10.1523/Jneurosci.2252-07.2007 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Robinson JL, Laird AR, Glahn DC, Blangero J, Sanghera MK, Pessoa L, Fox PM, Uecker A, Friehs G, Young KA, Griffin JL, Lovallo WR, Fox PT (2012) The functional connectivity of the human caudate: an application of meta-analytic connectivity modeling with behavioral filtering. Neuroimage 60(1):117–129. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.12.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Said CP, Moore CD, Engell AD, Todorov A, Haxby JV (2010) Distributed representations of dynamic facial expressions in the superior temporal sulcus. J Vis 10(5). doi: 10.1167/10.5.11
- Shih P, Keehn B, Oram JK, Leyden KM, Keown CL, Muller RA (2011) Functional differentiation of posterior superior temporal sulcus in autism: a functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 70(3):270–277. doi: 10.1016/J.Biopsych.03.040 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Turk-Browne NB, Norman-Haignere SV, McCarthy G (2010) Face-specific resting functional connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Front Hum Neurosci 4. doi: 10.3389/Fnhum.2010.00176
- Tzourio-Mazoyer N, Landeau B, Papathanassiou D, Crivello F, Etard O, Delcroix N, Mazoyer B, Joliot M (2002) Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain. Neuroimage 15(1):273–289. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0978 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar