Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 220, Issue 2, pp 1063–1076 | Cite as

Anterior–posterior dissociation of the default mode network in dogs

  • Sreenath P. Kyathanahally
  • Hao Jia
  • Oleg M. Pustovyy
  • Paul Waggoner
  • Ronald Beyers
  • John Schumacher
  • Jay Barrett
  • Edward E. Morrison
  • Nouha Salibi
  • Thomas S. Denney
  • Vitaly J. Vodyanoy
  • Gopikrishna Deshpande
Original Article

Abstract

The default mode network (DMN) in humans has been extensively studied using seed-based correlation analysis (SCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). While DMN has been observed in monkeys as well, there are conflicting reports on whether they exist in rodents. Dogs are higher mammals than rodents, but cognitively not as advanced as monkeys and humans. Therefore, they are an interesting species in the evolutionary hierarchy for probing the comparative functions of the DMN across species. In this study, we sought to know whether the DMN, and consequently its functions such as self-referential processing, are exclusive to humans/monkeys or can we also observe the DMN in animals such as dogs. To address this issue, resting state functional MRI data from the brains of lightly sedated dogs and unconstrained and fully awake dogs were acquired, and ICA and SCA were performed for identifying the DMN. Since anesthesia can alter resting state networks, confirming our results in awake dogs was essential. Awake dog imaging was accomplished by training the dogs to keep their head still using reinforcement behavioral adaptation techniques. We found that the anterior (such as anterior cingulate and medial frontal) and posterior regions (such as posterior cingulate) of the DMN were dissociated in both awake and anesthetized dogs.

Keywords

Dog Resting state Awake animal imaging Rest animal imaging Functional MRI Default mode network (DMN) Independent component analysis 

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MPG 30584 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sreenath P. Kyathanahally
    • 1
  • Hao Jia
    • 1
  • Oleg M. Pustovyy
    • 2
  • Paul Waggoner
    • 3
  • Ronald Beyers
    • 1
  • John Schumacher
    • 4
  • Jay Barrett
    • 5
  • Edward E. Morrison
    • 2
  • Nouha Salibi
    • 1
    • 6
  • Thomas S. Denney
    • 1
    • 7
  • Vitaly J. Vodyanoy
    • 2
  • Gopikrishna Deshpande
    • 1
    • 7
  1. 1.AU MRI Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy, Physiology and PharmacologyAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  3. 3.Canine Detection Research InstituteAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  4. 4.Department of Clinical SciencesAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  5. 5.College of Veterinary MedicineAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  6. 6.MR R&D, Siemens HealthcareMalvernUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychologyAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA

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