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Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 219, Issue 5, pp 1627–1638 | Cite as

White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging

  • J. GooijersEmail author
  • A. Leemans
  • S. Van Cauter
  • S. Sunaert
  • S. P. Swinnen
  • K. Caeyenberghs
Original Article

Abstract

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42–0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p < 0.001), the correlation coefficients were comparable. Finally, better motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43–0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

Keywords

Bimanual motor control Diffusion tensor imaging Excess kurtosis Non-Gaussian diffusion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a grant from the Research Programme of the Research Foundation—Flanders (Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—FWO) (G.0482.010, G0483.10, G.A114.11, G0721.12), from the Research Fund of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium (OT/11/071), and Grant P7/11 from the Interuniversity Attraction Poles program of the Belgian federal government, awarded to S.P. Swinnen. J. Gooijers is funded by an aspirant fellowship of the Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO).

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

429_2013_590_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (355 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 355 kb)
429_2013_590_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (345 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 344 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Gooijers
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Leemans
    • 2
  • S. Van Cauter
    • 3
  • S. Sunaert
    • 3
  • S. P. Swinnen
    • 1
  • K. Caeyenberghs
    • 4
    • 1
  1. 1.Motor Control and Neuroplasticity Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, Group Biomedical SciencesKU LeuvenHeverleeBelgium
  2. 2.Image Sciences InstituteUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospital, KU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Physical Therapy and Motor Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of GhentGhentBelgium

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