Insula and drug cravings
- 1.2k Downloads
This paper reviews the role of the insula in drug craving. Evidence is presented that drug craving may be a particular instance of the anterior insula’s broader role in interoception and subjective feeling states similar, for example, to thirst and hunger. An important role for the insula in craving is supported by evidence of insular activity changing with satiety and with the top–down cognitive modulation of cravings. Cognitive processes involving the insula’s role in awareness of one’s own behaviour may also contribute to craving insofar as the avoidance of craving might require subjective awareness of the endogenous and exogenous cues that initiate it. Finally, some consideration is given to sex differences and developmental processes in craving.
KeywordsInsula Craving fMRI Cognition
- Egan G, Silk T, Zamarripa F, Williams J, Federico P, Cunnington R, Carabott L, Blair-West J, Shade R, McKinley M, Farrell M, Lancaster J, Jackson G, Fox P, Denton D (2003) Neural correlates of the emergence of consciousness of thirst. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:15241–15246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grüsser SM, Wrase J, Klein S, Hermann D, Smolka MN, Ruf M, Weber-Fahr W, Flor H, Mann K, Braus DF, Heinz A (2004) Cue-induced activation of the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex is associated with subsequent relapse in abstinent alcoholics. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 175:30–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Makris N, Gasic GP, Kennedy DN, Hodge SM, Kaiser JR, Lee MJ, Kim BW, Blood AJ, Evins AE, Seidman LJ, Iosifescu DV, Lee S, Baxter C, Perlis RH, Smoller JW, Fava M, Breiter HC (2008a) Cortical thickness abnormalities in cocaine addiction—a reflection of both drug use and a pre-existing disposition to drug abuse? Neuron 60:174–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar