Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 214, Issue 5–6, pp 397–410 | Cite as

Clinical effects of insular damage in humans

  • Agustin Ibañez
  • Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht
  • Facundo Manes


Multiple disturbances following lesions of the insula are reviewed in the present article, including those related to autonomic function; gustatory, olfactory, auditory, somatosensory, and multimodal perception, as well as body awareness; the emotion of disgust; mood and willed action, addiction behavior, and language. Given the multiple and varied nature of the impairments revealed by lesion studies, we suggest that the insula, as a multimodal area, has a major role as a convergence zone implicated in the coordination between internal and external information through emotional subjective awareness. Methodological issues are discussed with attention paid to lesion etiology, and lesions involving adjacent areas to the insular cortex.


Insula Lesion Awareness Interoception Perception Emotion Autonomic system 


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© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agustin Ibañez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht
    • 1
  • Facundo Manes
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO)Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Cognitive NeuroscienceUniversidad Diego PortalesSantiagoChile
  3. 3.National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Institute of Neurosciences Favaloro UniversityBuenos AiresArgentina

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