Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 213, Issue 1–2, pp 3–10 | Cite as

Lennart Heimer: in memoriam (1930–2007)

  • Suzanne N. Haber
  • Jacqueline F. McGinty
  • Enrico Mugnaini
  • Laszlo ZaborszkyEmail author
Original Article


Olfactory Bulb Globus Pallidus Basal Forebrain Ventral Striatum Stria Terminalis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Special thanks are due to all those who have contributed as authors or reviewers, in particular to Daniel S. Zahm, Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri who reviewed many of the submissions. The authors thanks to John A. Jane, Sr, Professor and Program Director, Department of Neurological Surgery at the University Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia and Ms Karen Saulle in helping in the biographical data of LH.

Publications of Lennart Heimer


  1. Heimer L (1961) The human brain and spinal cord. Dissection guide and review of the functional anatomy of the central nervous system. AB Akademiforlaget-Gumperts, Gothenburg. (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  2. Heimer L (1983) The human brain and spinal cord: functional neuroanatomy and dissection guide. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Heimer L (1995) The human brain and spinal cord: functional neuroanatomy and dissection guide. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Heimer L, Robards MJ (eds) (1981) Neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Heimer L, Zaborszky L (eds) (1989) Neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods 2. Recent progress. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Heimer L, Trimble M, Van Hoesen GW, Zahm DS (2008) Anatomy of neuropsychiatry. The new anatomy of the basal forebrain and its implications for neuropsychiatric illness. Elsevier-Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Instructional video

  1. Heimer L (1990) Dissection of the human brain: a Videotape Teaching Program. Springer/GmbH & Co KG, Berlin/MainzGoogle Scholar
  2. Heimer L (2007) Dissection of the human brain. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland. (DVD)Google Scholar

Journal articles and book chapters

  1. Alheid GF, Heimer L (1996) Theories of basal forebrain organization and the “emotional motor system”. Prog Brain Res 107:461–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alheid GF, Heimer L (1988) New perspectives in basal forebrain organization of special relevance for neuropsychiatric disorders: the striatopallidal, amygdaloid, and corticopetal components of substantia innominata. Neuroscience 27:1–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alheid GF, Carlsen J, de Olsen J, Heimer L (1984a) Quantitative determination of collateral anterior olfactory nucleus projections using a fluorescent tracer with an algebraic solution to the problem of double retrograde labeling. Brain Res 292:17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alheid GF, Carlsen J, Heimer L (1984b) An algebraic approach to the detection of multiple markers in complex neuronal systems. J Neurosci Methods 10:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alheid GF, Van Hoesen GW, Heimer L (1989) Functional neuroanatomy. In: Kaplan HJ, Sadock BJ (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry, 5th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 26–95Google Scholar
  6. Alheid GF, Heimer L, Switzer RD (1990) The basal ganglia. In: Paxinos G (ed) The human nervous system. Academic, San Diego, pp 483–581Google Scholar
  7. Alheid GF, Beltramino CA, de Olmos JS, Forbes MS, Swanson DJ, Heimer L (1998) The neuronal organization of the supracapsular part of the stria terminalis in the rat: the dorsal component of the extended amygdala. Neuroscience 84:967–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beltramino CA, Forbes, Swanson DJ, Alheid GF, Heimer L (1996) Amygdaloid input to transiently tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat. Brain Res 706:37–46Google Scholar
  9. Beltramino CA, de Olmos JS, Gallyas F, Heimer L, Zaborszky L (1993) Silver staining as a tool for neurotoxic assessment. In: Erinoff L (ed) Methods for assessing neurotoxicity of drugs of abuse. Monograph 136. National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), Rockville, pp 101–132Google Scholar
  10. Blackstad TW, Heimer L, Mugnaini E (1981) Experimental neuroanatomy: general approaches and laboratory procedures. In: Heimer L, Robards MJ (eds) Neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods. Plenum Press, New York, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  11. Brashear HR, Zaborszky L, Heimer L (1986) Distribution of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the diagonal band. Neuroscience 17:439–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bueno A, de Olmos S, Heimer L, de Olmos J (2003) NMDA-antagonist MK-801-induced neuronal degeneration in Wistar rat brain detected by the Amino-Cupric-Silver method. Exp Toxicol Pathol 54:319–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlsen J, Heimer L (1986a) A correlated light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study of cholinergic terminals and neurons in the rat amygdaloid body with special emphasis on the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. J Comp Neurol 244:121–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlsen J, Heimer L (1986b) The projection from the parataenial thalamic nucleus, as demonstrated by the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) method, identifies a subterritorial organization of the ventral striatum. Brain Res 374:375–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlsen J, Heimer L (1988) The basolateral amygdaloid complex as a cortical-like structure. Brain Res 441:377–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carlsen J, de Olmos J, Heimer L (1982) Tracing of two-neuron pathways in the olfactory system by the aid of transneuronal degeneration: projections of the amygdaloid body and hippocampal formation. J Comp Neurol 208:196–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlsen J, Zaborszky L, Heimer L (1985) Cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain to the basolateral amygdaloid complex: a combined retrograde fluorescent and immunohistochemical study. J Comp Neurol 234:155–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Churchill L, Cross RS, Pazdernik TL, Nelson SR, Zahm DS, Heimer L, Kalivas PW (1992) Patterns of glucose use after bicuculline-induced convulsions in relationship to gamma-aminobutyric acid and mu-opioid receptors in the ventral pallidum—functional markers for the ventral palidum. Brain Res 581:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Olmos JS, Heimer L (1978) Mapping of collateral projections with the HRP-method. Neurosci Lett 6:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Olmos JS, Heimer L (1980) Double and triple labeling of neurons with fluorescent substances; the study of collateral pathways in the ascending raphe system. Neurosci Lett 19:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Olmos JS, Heimer L (1999) The concepts of the ventral striatopallidal system and extended amygdala. Ann N Y Acad Sci 877:1–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Olmos J, Hardy H, Heimer L (1978) The afferent connections of the main and the accessory olfactory bulb formations in the rat: an experimental HRP-study. J Comp Neurol 181:213–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Olmos JS, Ebbesson SOE, Heimer L (1981) Silver methods for the impregnation of degenerating axoplasma. In: Heimer L, Robards MJ (eds) Neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods. Plenum Press, New York, pp 117–170Google Scholar
  24. Ebbesson SOE, Heimer L (1970) Projections of the olfactory tract fibers in the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Brain Res 17:47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fink RP, Heimer L (1967) Two methods for selective silver impregnation of degenerating axons and their synaptic endings in the central nervous system. Brain Res 4:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hardy H, Heimer L (1977) A safer and more sensitive substitute for diamino-benzidine in the light microscopic demonstration of retrograde and anterograde axonal transport of HRP. Neurosci Lett 5:235–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hardy H, Heimer L, Switzer R, Watkins D (1976) Simultaneous demonstration of horseradish peroxidase and acetylcholinesterase. Brain Res Newsl 3:1–5Google Scholar
  28. Heimer L (1967) Silver impregnation of terminal degeneration in some forebrain fiber systems: a comparative evaluation of current methods. Brain Res 5:86–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heimer L (1968a) Synaptic distribution of centripetal and centrifugal nerve fibers in the olfactory system of the rat. An experimental anatomical study. J Anat 103:413–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Heimer L (1968b) The tracing of pathways in the central nervous system. Proc IEEE 56:950–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heimer L (1969a) Silver impregnation of degenerating axons and their terminals on Epon-Araldite sections. Brain Res 12:246–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heimer L (1969b) The secondary olfactory connections in mammals, reptiles and shark. (In: Comparative and evolutionary aspects of the vertebrate central nervous System.) Ann N Y Acad Sci 167:129–146Google Scholar
  33. Heimer L (1970a) Bridging the gap between light and electron microscopy in the experimental tracing of fiber connections. In: Nauta WJH, Ebbesson SOE (eds) Contemporary research methods in neuroanatomy. Springer, New York, pp 162–172Google Scholar
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  35. Heimer L (1971) Pathways of the brain. Sci Am 225:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heimer L (1972) The olfactory connections of the diencephalons in the rat. An experimental light- and electron-microscopic study with special emphasis on the problem of terminal degeneration. Brain Behav Evol 6:484–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heimer L (1975) Olfactory projections to the diencephalons. In: Stumpf W, Grant L (eds) Handbook of neuroendocrinology. Karger, Basel, pp 30–39Google Scholar
  38. Heimer L (1978) The olfactory cortex and the ventral striatum. In: Livingston K, Hornykiewicz O (eds) Limbic mechanisms. The continuing evolution of the limbic system concept. Plenum Press, New York, pp 96–187Google Scholar
  39. Heimer L (1987) Neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods. In: Adelman G (ed) Encyclopedia of neurosciences. Birkhauser, Boston 3:766–769Google Scholar
  40. Heimer L (1999) The third quarter of the twentieth century; the golden age of the silver methods. Brain Res Bull 50:399–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heimer L (2000) Basal forebrain in the context of schizophrenia. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 31:205–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heimer L (2003a) A new anatomical framework for neuropsychiatric disorders and drug abuse. Am J Psychiatry 160:1726–1739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heimer L (2003b) The legacy of the silver methods and the new anatomy of the basal forebrain: implications for neuropsychiatry and drug abuse. Scand J Psychol 44:189–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heimer L (2006) Short retrospection. In: Zaborszky L, Wouterlood FG, Lanciego JL (eds) Neuroanatomical tract-tracing 3: molecules, neurons, and systems. Springer, New York, pp 1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heimer L, Alheid G (1991) Piecing together the puzzle of basal forebrain anatomy. In: Napier TC, Kalivas PW, Hanin (eds) The basal forebrain: anatomy to function. Plenum Press, New York, 295:1–42Google Scholar
  46. Heimer L, Alheid GF (1996) Basal forebrain organization; emerging concepts. Encyclopedia of neuroscience, 2nd edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  47. Heimer L, Ekholm R (1967) Neuronal argyrophilia in early degenerative states: a light- and electronmicroscopical study of the Glees and Nauta techniques. Experientia 23:237–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heimer L, Kalil R (1978) Rapid transneuronal degeneration and death of cortical neurons following removal of the olfactory bulb in adult rats. J Comp Neurol 178:559–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Heimer L, Larsson K (1964) Drastic changes in the mating behavior of male rats following lesions in the junction of diencephalons and mesencephalon. Experientia 20:460–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heimer L, Larsson K (1965) Mating behavior in male rats after destruction of the mammillary bodies. Acta Neurol Scand 40:353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heimer L, Larsson K (1966–1967) Impairment of mating behavior in male rats following lesions in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic continuum. Brain Res 3:248–263Google Scholar
  52. Heimer L, Larsson K (1967) Mating behavior of male rats after olfactory bulb lesions. Physiol Behav 2:207–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heimer L, Lohman AHM (1976) Anatomical methods for tracing connections in the central olfactory system. In: Gazzaniga MS, Blakemore C (eds) Handbook of psychobiology. Academic, New York, pp 73–106Google Scholar
  54. Heimer L, Nauta WJ (1969) The hypothalamic distribution of the stria terminalis in the rat. Brain Res 13:284–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heimer L, Peters A (1968) An electron microscope study of a silver stain for degenerating boutons. Brain Res 8:337–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Heimer L, van Hoesen G (1979) Ventral striatum. In: Divac J, Oberg RGE (eds) The neostriatum. Pergamon Press, Oxford, NY, pp 147–158Google Scholar
  57. Heimer L, Van Hoesen GW (2006) The limbic lobe and its output channels: implications for emotional functions and adaptive behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30:126–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  60. Heimer L, Ebner FF, Nauta WJH (1967) A note on the termination of commissural fibers in neocortex. Brain Res 5:171–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  64. Heimer L, Switzer RD, van Hoesen GW (1982) Ventral striatum and ventral pallidum: additional components of the motor system? Trends Neurosci 5:83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  73. Heimer L, Alheid GF, de Olmos JS, Groenewegen HJ, Haber SN, Harlan RE, Zahm DS (1997a) The accumbens: beyond the core-shell dichotomy. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 9:354–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  91. Young WS, Alheid GF, Heimer L (1984) The ventral pallidal projection to the mediodorsal thalamus: a study with fluorescent retrograde tracers and immunohistofluorescence. J Neurosci 4:1626–1638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Zaborszky L, Heimer L (1989) Combinations of tracer techniques, especially HRP, with transmitter identification for correlated light and electron microscopic studies. In: Heimer L, Zaborszky L (eds) Tract-tracing methods II. Plenum Press, New York, pp 49–96Google Scholar
  93. Zaborszky L, Beinfeld M, Palkovits M, Heimer L (1984a) Brainstem projection to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus in the rat: a CCK-containing long ascending pathway. Brain Res 303:225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  103. Zahm DS, Heimer L (1993) Specificity in the efferent projections of the nucleus accumbens in the rat: comparison of the rostral pole projection patterns with those of the core and shell. J Comp Neurol 327:220–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne N. Haber
    • 1
  • Jacqueline F. McGinty
    • 2
  • Enrico Mugnaini
    • 3
  • Laszlo Zaborszky
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and PhysiologyUniversity of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  3. 3.Institute for NeuroscienceNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Center for Molecular and Behavioral NeuroscienceRutgers, The State University of New JerseyNewarkUSA

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