Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 212, Issue 3–4, pp 231–244 | Cite as

Bottom-up and top-down brain functional connectivity underlying comprehension of everyday visual action

  • S. J. Hanson
  • C. Hanson
  • Y. Halchenko
  • T. Matsuka
  • A. Zaimi
Original Article

Abstract

How can the components of visual comprehension be characterized as brain activity? Making sense of a dynamic visual world involves perceiving streams of activity as discrete units such as eating breakfast or walking the dog. In order to parse activity into distinct events, the brain relies on both the perceptual (bottom-up) data available in the stimulus as well as on expectations about the course of the activity based on previous experience with, or knowledge about, similar types of activity (top-down data). Using fMRI, we examined the contribution of bottom-up and top-down processing to the comprehension of action streams by contrasting familiar action sequences with those having exactly the same perceptual detection and motor responses (yoked control), but no visual action familiarity. New methods incorporating structural equation modeling of the data yielded distinct patterns of interactivity among brain areas as a function of the degree to which bottom-up and top-down data were available.

References

  1. Bartlett FC (1932) Remembering: an experimental and social study. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Buxton RB, Wong EC, Frank LR (1998) Dynamics of blood flow and oxygenation changes during brain activation: the balloon model. Mag Reson Med 39(6):855–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carpenter GA, Grossberg S, Rosen DB (1991) ART 2-A: An adaptive resonance algorithm for rapid category learning and recognition. Neural Netw 4(4):493–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Desimone R, Duncan J (1995) Annu Rev Neurosci 18:193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Friston KJ, Harrison L, Penny W (2003) Dynamic causal modeling. Neuroimage 19(4):1273–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fodor JA (1983) The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Hanson C, Hirst W (1989) On the representation of events: a study of orientation, recall, and recognition. J Exp Psychol General 118(2):136–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hanson C, Hanson SJ (1996) Development of schemata during event parsing: Neisser’s perceptual cycle as a recurrent connectionist network. J Cogn Neurosci 8:119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanson S, Halchenko Y (2007) Support vector machines for object recognition: there is no face identification area. Neural Comput (in press)Google Scholar
  10. Hanson SJ, Negishi M, Hanson C (2001) Connectionist neuroimaging. Emerg Neural Comput Architect Based Neurosci, pp. 560–576Google Scholar
  11. Hanson SJ, Matsuka T, Haxby JV (2004a) Combinatoric codes in ventral medial temporal lobes for objects: Haxby revisited: Is there a “face” area? NeuroImage 23:156–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanson SJ, Matsuka T, Hanson C, Rebbechi D, Halchenko Y, Zaimi A, Pearlmutter B (2004b) Structural equation modeling of neuroimaging data: exhaustive search and Markov Chain Monte Carlo. HBM-2004Google Scholar
  13. Hanson SJ, Rebbechi D, Matsuka T, Halchenko Y, Hanson C (2007a) Methods for graphical modeling of brain interactivity. Neuroimage (submitted)Google Scholar
  14. Hanson SJ, Rebbechi D, Zaimi A, Hanson C, Halchenko Y (2007b) Clustering brain maps with mode seeking algorithms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (in press)Google Scholar
  15. Hausson U, Nir Y, Levy I, Fuhrmann G, Malach R (2004) Intersubject synchronization of cortical activity during natural vision. Science 303(5664):1634–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haxby JV, Gobbini E. MI, Furey ML, Ishai A, Schouten JL, Pietrini P (2001) Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex. Science 293:2425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heider F, Simmel M (1944) An experimental study of apparent behaviour. Am J Psychol 57(2):243–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson MK, Raye CL, Mitchell KJ, Greene EJ, Cunningham WA, Sanislow CA (2005) Using fMRI to investigate a component process of reflection: prefrontal correlates of refreshing a just-activated representation. Cogn Affective Behav Neurosci 5:339–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kanwisher N, McDermott J, Chun MM (1997) The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. J Neurosci 17(11):4302–4311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kastner S, Ungerleider LG (2000) Annu Rev Neurosci 23:315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller EK, Cohen JD (2001) An integrative theory of prefrontal cortext function. Ann Rev Neurosci 24:167–202 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McIntosh AR (1999) Mapping cognition to the brain through neural interactions. Memory 7(5/6):523–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McIntosh AR (2001) Towards a network theory of cognition. Neural Netw 13:861–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Neisser U (1967) Cognitive psychology. Appleton Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Neisser U (1976) Cognition and reality, San Francisco, FreemanGoogle Scholar
  26. Newtson D (1973) Attribution and the unit of perception of ongoing behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol 28:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Penny WD, Stephan KE, Mechelli A, Friston K (2004) Compaing dynamic causal models. Neuroimage 22:1157–1172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Posner MI, Raichle ME (1994) Images of mind. W. H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Posner MI, Gilbert CD (1999) Attention and primary visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(6):2585–2587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rumelhart DE, Ortony A (1977) The representation of knowledge in memory. Anderson RC, Spiro RJ, Montague WE (eds) Schooling and the acquiation of knowledge. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, pp 99–135Google Scholar
  31. Smith S, Bannister P, Beckmann C, Brady M, Clare S, Flitney D, Hansen P, Jenkinson M, Leibovici D, Ripley B, Woolrich M, Zhang Y (2001) FSL: new tools for functional and structural brain image analysis. In: Seventh international conference on functional mapping of the human brainGoogle Scholar
  32. Schank RC (1975) Conceptual information processing. North-Holland Publishing Co, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  33. Talairach J, Tournoux P (1988) Co-planar stereotaxic atlas of the human brain. Thieme, New yorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Thompson-Schill SL, Bedney M, Goldberg RF (2005) The frontal lobes and the regulation of mental activity. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:219–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zacks J, Braver TS, Sheridan MA, Donaldson DI, Snyder AZ, Ollinger JM, Buckner RL, Raichle ME (2001) Human brain activity time-locked to perceptual event boundaries. Nature Neurosci 4(6):651–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zacks JM, Tversky B (2001) Event structure in perception and conception. Psychol Bull 127(1):3–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Hanson
    • 1
  • C. Hanson
    • 1
  • Y. Halchenko
    • 1
  • T. Matsuka
    • 1
  • A. Zaimi
    • 1
  1. 1.RUMBA Laboratories, Psychology DepartmentRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations