Juxta-articular myxoma and intramuscular myxoma are two distinct entities
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Juxta-articular myxoma is a rare myxoid tumor of soft tissue that bears a close histologic resemblance to intramuscular myxoma but is distinguished from the latter by its clinical setting and behavior. Activating missense mutations at the Arg 201 codon of the Gsα gene ultimately leading to increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate have been implicated in McCune-Albright syndrome and sporadic fibrous dysplasia of bone. Recently, we have demonstrated that the same Gsα mutations occur in intramuscular myxomas associated with fibrous dysplasia of bone (Mazabraud's syndrome) as well as in sporadic intramuscular myxoma. The overlapping histologic appearances of juxta-articular myxoma and intramuscular myxoma prompted us to investigate whether there is a relationship between the two entities. We studied this possibility by looking for Gsα mutations in juxta-articular myxoma using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify appropriate genomic DNA fragments extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of five juxta-articular myxomas, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Using these techniques, no aberrant bands were detected in any of the five juxta-articular myxomas, indicating that they lack Gsα mutations. Moreover, DNA sequencing of the PCR products of two JAMs showed no abnormalities. We conclude that juxta-articular myxomas, in contrast to intramuscular myxomas, do not involve Arg 201 mutations of the Gsα gene, indicating that they represent distinct entities with different underlying molecular mechanisms.
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