Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses of liposarcoma and its soft tissue simulators: recognition of new variants and differential diagnosis
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Liposarcoma is one of the most common sarcomas of adults. Its differential diagnosis and accurate subclassification are often problematic; the latter is also important with regard to appropriate treatment and prognosis. We studied a series of 23 liposarcomas that had unusual or previously undescribed features and 10 liposarcoma simulators and correlated the morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic findings. We found that use of cytogenetic–molecular genetic techniques aids in the distinction between myxoid-round cell liposarcoma and their simulators, chondroid lipoma, myxoid spindle cell-pleomorphic lipoma, cellular intramuscular myxoma, and myxofibrosarcoma. Poorly differentiated forms of round cell liposarcoma lacking morphologic evidence of lipogenesis can also be diagnosed using these techniques; however, the techniques do not aid in distinguishing low-grade myxoid from high-grade round cell liposarcomas. This study also shows that retroperitoneal liposarcomas with myxoid liposarcoma-like zones are part of the morphologic spectrum of well-differentiated–dedifferentiated liposarcoma rather than true myxoid liposarcomas. Perhaps most importantly, our results provide the first molecular genetic evidence that true mixed liposarcomas (mixed well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma) do indeed exist. They also unequivocally demonstrate the existence of small, round cell variants of pleomorphic liposarcoma that closely simulate myxoid-round cell liposarcoma.
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