What is new about the molecular genetics in matrix-producing soft tissue tumors? -The contributions to pathogenetic understanding and diagnostic classification

  • Yu-Chien Kao
  • Jen-Chieh Lee
  • Hsuan-Ying HuangEmail author
Review Article


Soft tissue tumors encompass a wide variety of mesenchymal neoplasms exhibiting diverse clinical, pathologic, and molecular features. Among these, osteoid and/or chondroid matrix deposition in some soft tissue tumors represents a noticeable characteristic. Unlike matrices present in bone tumors where they likely reveal the respective cells of origin (i.e., osteoblastic or chondroblastic precursors), those existing in soft tissue tumors more often denote a metaplastic phenomenon and reflect the diversity of differentiation these tumors can display. While many soft tissue tumor types can occasionally harbor metaplastic bone or cartilage as an incidental component or heterologous differentiation, in some other tumor types, the production of these matrices is a frequent and distinctive, if not diagnostic, feature. This review focuses on the latter tumor types where emerging immunohistochemical and molecular evidence has significantly improved our understanding of their respective pathogenesis and histopathological spectra. These tumor types include ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, synovial chondromatosis, soft tissue chondroma, calcifying aponeurotic fibroma, giant cell tumor of soft tissue, myositis ossificans and related diseases, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and extraskeletal osteosarcoma.


Soft tissue Matrix Tumor Genetics Diagnosis 



This work was sponsored in part by Chang Gung Hospital (CMRPG8G0882 to H.Y.H.). The authors thank Ms. Shih-Chen Yu for her superb technical assistance in molecular testing. The authors thank Ping-Yuan Chu for excellent technical and editorial assistance.

Contributions of authors

Y.C.K., J.C.L., and H.Y.H. prepared the gross and microscopic figures and wrote the paper. H.Y.H. contributed to the data of molecular testing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyShuang Ho Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Bone and Soft Tissue Study Group, Taiwan Society of PathologyKaohsiungTaiwan
  3. 3.Department and Graduate Institute of PathologyNational Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Anatomical PathologyKaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of MedicineKaohsiung CityTaiwan

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