Virchows Archiv

, Volume 475, Issue 5, pp 617–624 | Cite as

Mist1: a novel nuclear marker for acinic cell carcinoma of the salivary gland

  • Min-Shu Hsieh
  • Yung-Ming Jeng
  • Yi-Hsuan LeeEmail author
Original Article


Muscle, intestine, and stomach expression 1 (Mist1) is a transcription factor that functions in the development of granule organisation in serous exocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Mist1 can be used as a marker for acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) of the salivary gland. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyse Mist1 expression in AciCC (n = 26), secretory carcinoma (SC; n = 18) and 12 other types of salivary gland tumours (n = 99). Strong Mist1 staining was observed in normal serous acinar cells and plasma cells. Mist1 was diffusely expressed in AciCC, with the immunostaining intensity ranging from moderate (4/26) to strong (22/26). Most SC specimens were either negative (7/18) or focally and mildly positive (9/18) for Mist1. Only two SC cases demonstrated a moderate level of Mist1 staining. When moderate-to-strong Mist1 staining was used as the criterion of positivity, all the tested salivary gland tumours other than AciCC were negative for Mist1, except for two cases of SC. Previously cut tissue sections and decalcified specimens exhibited reduced Mist1 immunostaining intensity, which may give false-negative results. In summary, Mist1 is a sensitive marker for serous acinar cells of salivary glands and AciCC, and background non-tumour acinar cells and plasma cells can serve as good internal positive controls.


Mist1 BHLHA15 Acinic cell carcinoma Secretory carcinoma Salivary gland 


Author contributions

Min-Shu Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan Lee and Yung-Ming Jeng performed the research. Min-Shu Hsieh and Yung-Ming Jeng designed the research study and analysed the data. Min-Shu Hsieh and Yung-Ming Jeng wrote the paper.

Funding information

This study was supported by grants from the National Taiwan University Hospital (Nos. 106-M3739, 106-003612, 107-N3971, and 107-N4038).

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital (201504071RINC) and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

428_2019_2600_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Online Resource 1 Image analysis of Mist1 expression in AciCC and SC using ImageJ (DOCX 20 kb)
428_2019_2600_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18.7 mb)
Online Resource 2 Mist1 expression in other salivary gland tumours (DOCX 19107 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyNational Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Graduate Institute of PathologyNational Taiwan University College of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan

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