Virchows Archiv

, Volume 470, Issue 4, pp 437–443 | Cite as

Factors that may influence polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma growth

  • Andresa Borges SoaresEmail author
  • Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez
  • Patricia Fernandes Avila Ribeiro
  • Icleia Siqueira Barreto
  • Maria Cássia Aguiar
  • Cristiane Furuse
  • Marcelo Sperandio
  • Victor Angelo Montalli
  • Ney Soares de Araújo
  • Vera Cavalcanti de Araújo
Original Article


There is mounting evidence on the importance of some biological processes in tumor growth, such as vascular supply, apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence. We have investigated these processes in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), in an attempt to identify those that are relevant for this particular lesion. We analyzed 31 cases of PLGA using immunohistochemistry to antibodies against CD34 and CD105 to detect blood vessels; against D2-40 to detect lymphatic vessels; against Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin to explore cell apoptosis; and against Beclin and LCB3 to investigate autophagy and against p21 and p16 to assess senescence. Our results showed that PLGA growth does not depend on newly formed vessels but only on preexisting vasculature. Furthermore, PLGA is promoted by autophagy, sustained by both anti-apoptotic and anti-senescence signals, and stimulated by Bcl-2 and survivin.


Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma Angiogenesis Apoptosis Autophagy Senescence Bcl2 Survivin LC3B 



The authors would like to thank Jeruza Bossonaro and Nadir Freitas for their technical expertise.

Authors’ contributions

All authors contributed equally to the preparation of the article.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center (number 916.794).


The authors are also extremely grateful to FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation) and CNPq for their financial support (FAPESP #2015/12418-5 and CNPQ #304031/2014-3).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andresa Borges Soares
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez
    • 1
  • Patricia Fernandes Avila Ribeiro
    • 1
  • Icleia Siqueira Barreto
    • 1
  • Maria Cássia Aguiar
    • 2
  • Cristiane Furuse
    • 3
  • Marcelo Sperandio
    • 1
  • Victor Angelo Montalli
    • 1
  • Ney Soares de Araújo
    • 1
  • Vera Cavalcanti de Araújo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral PathologySão Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research CenterCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Oral PathologyFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Oral PathologyState University of São PauloAraçatubaBrazil

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