Virchows Archiv

, Volume 469, Issue 6, pp 669–678 | Cite as

Morphological, immunohistochemical, and chromosomal analysis of multicystic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, an architecturally unusual challenging variant

  • Maria Pané Foix
  • Ana Dunatov
  • Petr Martinek
  • Enric Condom Mundó
  • Saul Suster
  • Maris Sperga
  • Jose I. Lopez
  • Monika Ulamec
  • Stela Bulimbasic
  • Delia Perez Montiel
  • Reza Alaghehbandan
  • Kvetoslava Peckova
  • Krystina Pivovarcikova
  • Daum Ondrej
  • Pavla Rotterova
  • Faruk Skenderi
  • Kristyna Prochazkova
  • Martin Dusek
  • Milan Hora
  • Michal Michal
  • Ondrej HesEmail author
Original Article


Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is typically composed of large leaf-like cells and smaller eosinophilic cells arranged in a solid-alveolar pattern. Eosinophilic, adenomatoid/pigmented, or neuroendocrine variants have also been described. We collected 10 cases of ChRCC with a distinct multicystic pattern out of 733 ChRCCs from our registry, and subsequently analyzed these by morphology, immunohistochemistry, and array comparative genomic hybridization. Of the 10 patients, 6 were males with an age range of 50–89 years (mean 68, median 69). Tumor size ranged between 1.2 and 20 cm (mean 5.32, median 3). Clinical follow-up was available for seven patients, ranging 1–19 years (mean 7.2, median 2.5). No aggressive behavior was documented. We observed two growth patterns, which were similar in all tumors: (1) variable-sized cysts, resembling multilocular cystic neoplasm of low malignant potential and (2) compressed cystic and tubular pattern with slit-like spaces. Raisinoid nuclei were consistently present while necrosis was absent in all cases. Half of the cases showed eosinophilic/oncocytic cytology, deposits of pigment (lipochrome) and microcalcifications. The other half was composed of pale or mixed cell populations. Immunostains for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CK7, OSCAR, CD117, parvalbumin, MIA, and Pax 8 were positive in all tumors while negative for vimentin, TFE3, CANH 9, HMB45, cathepsin K, and AMACR. Ki67 immunostain was positive in up to 1 % of neoplastic cells. Molecular genetic examination revealed multiple chromosomal losses in two fifths analyzable tumors, while three cases showed no chromosomal numerical aberrations. ChRCC are rarely arranged in a prominent multicystic pattern, which is probably an extreme form of the microcystic adenomatoid pigmented variant of ChRCC. The spectrum of tumors entering the differential diagnosis of ChRCC is quite different from that of conventional ChRCC. The immunophenotype of ChRCC is identical with that of conventional ChRCC. Chromosomal numerical aberration pattern was variable; no chromosomal numerical aberrations were found in three cases. All the cases in this series have shown an indolent and non-aggressive behavior.


Kidney Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma Multicystic Immunohistochemistry ArrayCGH 


Compliance with ethical standards

Study design has been approved by local ethical committee (Charles University, Medical School Plzen) LEK FN Plzeň.


The study was supported by the Charles University Research Fund (project number P36), by the project FN 00669806, and by SVV 260283.

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Pané Foix
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana Dunatov
    • 3
  • Petr Martinek
    • 4
  • Enric Condom Mundó
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saul Suster
    • 5
  • Maris Sperga
    • 6
  • Jose I. Lopez
    • 7
  • Monika Ulamec
    • 8
  • Stela Bulimbasic
    • 9
  • Delia Perez Montiel
    • 10
  • Reza Alaghehbandan
    • 11
  • Kvetoslava Peckova
    • 4
  • Krystina Pivovarcikova
    • 4
  • Daum Ondrej
    • 4
  • Pavla Rotterova
    • 4
  • Faruk Skenderi
    • 12
  • Kristyna Prochazkova
    • 13
  • Martin Dusek
    • 4
  • Milan Hora
    • 13
  • Michal Michal
    • 4
  • Ondrej Hes
    • 4
    • 14
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Bellvitge University HospitalBellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of MedicineUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of PathologyUniversity of SplitSplitCroatia
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, , Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital PlzenCharles UniversityPilsenCzech Republic
  5. 5.Department of PathologyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  6. 6.Department of PathologyEast UniversityRigaLatvia
  7. 7.Department of Pathology, Cruces University Hospital, Biocruces Research InstituteUniversity of the Basque CountryBarakaldoSpain
  8. 8.“Ljudevit Jurak” Pathology DepartmentClinical Hospital Center “Sestre milosrdnice”ZagrebCroatia
  9. 9.Department of PathologyClinical Hospital Center ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  10. 10.Department of PathologyInstituto Nacional de CancerologiaMexico CityMexico
  11. 11.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Royal Columbian HospitalUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  12. 12.Department of PathologyClinical Center of the University of SrajevoSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina
  13. 13.Department of Urology, Medical Faculty and Charles University HospitalCharles UniversityPlzenCzech Republic
  14. 14.Biomedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine in LzenCharles University in PraguePlzenCzech Republic

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