Virchows Archiv

, Volume 464, Issue 1, pp 29–34 | Cite as

Neither expression of VEGF-C/D nor lymph vessel density supports lymphatic invasion as the mechanism responsible for local spread of recurrent salivary pleomorphic adenoma

  • R. Salzman
  • I. Stárek
  • L. Kučerová
  • A. Skálová
  • J. Hoza
Original Article


Recent research suggests that multinodular recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA) might result from cell migration through lymphatics. Lymphangiogenesis in malignancies is mediated by vascular endothelial growth factors C and D (VEGF-C/D). We studied the expression of VEGF-C/D in PA by immunohistochemistry as well as lymphatic vessel density (LVD). In 6 non-recurrent, 4 primary-to-recur, and 10 recurrent PAs, VEGF-C/D expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Staining was scored in terms of staining intensity (0 = absent to 3 = strong), and the percentage of positive tumor cells (scored as 0 (0–19 %), 1 (20–39 %), 2 (40–50 %), and 3 (60–100 %)) and a sum score were calculated. Intra- and peritumoral LVD was assessed by counting of LV after immunostaining, using the D2-40 antibody. All but one sample were VEGF-C negative. The differences in VEGF-D expression between non-recurrent, primary-to-recur, and recurrent PAs were not significant (p > 0.05). VEGF-D expression did not correlate with peritumoral LVD (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a significant difference between intra- and peritumoral LVD values when comparing individual and all sample groups (p = 0.01). The lack of VEGF-C expression and of significant differences in VEGF-D expression and peritumoral LVD between patients with non-recurrent, primary-to-recur, and recurrent PAs does not support the lymphangiogenic local spread hypothesis.


Lymphangiogenesis Pleomorphic adenoma Recurrence Salivary gland Vascular endothelial growth factor 



This study was supported by the Institutional Support of the Ministry of Health, Czech Republic, Nr. 1RVO-FNOL.2013, and IGA Czech Republic, Nr. NT13701-4/2012. Mr. George Kumsta is acknowledged for his help with the final English revision.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Salzman
    • 1
  • I. Stárek
    • 1
  • L. Kučerová
    • 2
  • A. Skálová
    • 3
  • J. Hoza
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Olomouc Faculty HospitalPalacký University OlomoucOlomoucCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Pathology, Olomouc Faculty HospitalPalacký University OlomoucOlomoucCzech Republic
  3. 3.Šikl’s Department of PathologyCharles UniversityPlzeňCzech Republic

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