Virchows Archiv

, Volume 453, Issue 5, pp 441–448 | Cite as

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: indications for and pitfalls of frozen section examination

Review and Perspective


Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Surgical resection remains the only curative treatment. Frozen section examination is requested by the surgeon in a large variety of surgical situations, but its use differs greatly according to the location of the tumor and the type of surgery performed. The objective of this review is to describe the main indications for and pitfalls of frozen section examination of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.


Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors Frozen section examination Surgery Pathology 



We are grateful to Professor Günther Klöppel for critical reading and editing the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest Statement

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université Paris 7, UFR médicale, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital BeaujonService d’Anatomie PathologiqueClichyFrance
  2. 2.Université Paris 7, UFR médicale, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital BeaujonService de Chirurgie Hépatique et PancréatiqueClichyFrance

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