Virchows Archiv

, Volume 453, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

Pathogenesis of lymphangiomas

  • Susanne WiegandEmail author
  • Behfar Eivazi
  • Peter J. Barth
  • Dirk Berens von Rautenfeld
  • Benedikt J. Folz
  • Robert Mandic
  • Jochen A. Werner
Review and Perspective


Based on various hypotheses concerning lymphangiogenesis published in the literature, different putative mechanisms of lymphangioma development are discussed including failure of the lymphatic system to connect with or separate from the venous system, abnormal budding of the lymphatic system from the cardinal vein, or acquired processes such as traumata, infections, chronic inflammations, and obstructions. Increasingly, the possible influence of lymphangiogenic growth factors on the development of lymphangiomas is discussed. The proved expression of different growth factors in the endothelium of lymphangiomas leads to new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of lymphangiomas. Thus, further studies on the lymphangiogenesis and the development of lymphangiomas will have to clarify as to whether lymphangiomas are true malformations or neoplastic in nature.


Lymphangioma Lymphangiogenesis Growth factor 


Conflict of interest statement

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanne Wiegand
    • 1
    Email author
  • Behfar Eivazi
    • 1
  • Peter J. Barth
    • 2
  • Dirk Berens von Rautenfeld
    • 3
  • Benedikt J. Folz
    • 4
  • Robert Mandic
    • 1
  • Jochen A. Werner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryPhilipps-University of MarburgMarburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of PathologyPhilipps-University of MarburgMarburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Functional and Applied AnatomyHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany
  4. 4.Department of OtolaryngologyKarl-Hansen Medical CenterBad LippspringeGermany

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