Pondering the procephalon: the segmental origin of the labrum
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With accumulating evidence for the appendicular nature of the labrum, the question of its actual segmental origin remains. Two existing insect head segmentation models, the linear and S-models, are reviewed, and a new model introduced. The L-/Bent-Y model proposes that the labrum is a fusion of the appendage endites of the intercalary segment and that the stomodeum is tightly integrated into this segment. This model appears to explain a wider variety of insect head segmentation phenomena. Embryological, histological, neurological and molecular evidence supporting the new model is reviewed.
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