Development Genes and Evolution

, Volume 225, Issue 4, pp 221–233 | Cite as

Identification and expression dynamics of three WUSCHEL related homeobox 13 (WOX13) genes in peanut

  • Pengfei Wang
  • Changsheng Li
  • Cui Li
  • Chuanzhi Zhao
  • Han Xia
  • Shuzhen Zhao
  • Lei Hou
  • Chao Gao
  • Shubo WanEmail author
  • Xingjun WangEmail author
Original Article


WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) genes play key roles in plant stem cell maintenance and development. WOX genes showed specific expression patterns which are important for their functions. WOX13 subfamily genes as the ancestor genes of this family were less studied in the past. In this study, we cloned three Arachis hypogaea (peanut) WOX13 (AhWOX13) subfamily genes from peanut: WOX13A and WOX13B1, 2. WOX13B1 encoded a same protein as WOX13B2, and there were only two-base difference between these two genes. Differential expression patterns were observed for these three AhWOX13 subfamily genes in different tissues and developmental stages. Phylogenic trees analysis showed that these AhWOX13 subfamily genes were the most conserved WOX genes and belonged to the ancient clade of WOX family. This was also supported by the conserved motif analysis. Selective pressure analysis showed that the WOX family genes mainly underwent weak purifying selection (ω = 0.58097), while many positive mutations accumulated during the evolution history. Under the purifying selection, gene duplication event and loss of duplicated gene play important roles in the expansion and evolution of WOX family.


Peanut WOX13 subfamily gene Stem cell Evolution Selective pressure 



This study is supported by the following grants: Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (BS2013SW006), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31471526), Shandong Province Germplasm Innovation and Utilization Project, the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (2013AA102602), and Projects from Shandong Province (2012ZHZXIA0418, tshw20100416).

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Supplementary material

427_2015_506_Fig10_ESM.jpg (258 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 1

(A) and (E) The amplification result by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR with WOX13B1 forward and reverse primer. (B) and (F) The amplification result by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR with WOX13B2 forward and reverse primer. (C) and (G) The amplification result by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR with WOX13B1 forward and WOX13B2 reverse primer. (D) and (H) The amplification result by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR with WOX13B2 forward and reverse WOX13B1 primer. (JPEG 258 kb)

427_2015_506_Fig11_ESM.jpg (183 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 2

The HMM logo of Conserved motif of WOX family. (JPEG 183 kb)

427_2015_506_Fig12_ESM.jpg (252 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 3

The HMM logo of Conserved motif of WOX13 OG members. (JPEG 252 kb)

427_2015_506_MOESM1_ESM.doc (66 kb)
Supplemental Table 1 Names and accession numbers of WOX family members. (DOC 66 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pengfei Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Changsheng Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cui Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chuanzhi Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Han Xia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuzhen Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lei Hou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shubo Wan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xingjun Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Bio-Tech Research CenterShandong Academy of Agricultural SciencesJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Ecology and PhysiologyJinanPeople’s Republic of China

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