Development Genes and Evolution

, Volume 223, Issue 4, pp 225–235 | Cite as

Analysis of ciliary band formation in the mollusc Ilyanassa obsoleta

  • Maey Gharbiah
  • Ayaki Nakamoto
  • Lisa M. Nagy
Original Article


Two primary ciliary bands, the prototroch and metatroch, are required for locomotion and in the feeding larvae of many spiralians. The metatroch has been reported to have different cellular origins in the molluscs Crepidula fornicata and Ilyanassa obsoleta, as well as in the annelid Polygordius lacteus, consistent with multiple independent origins of the spiralian metatroch. Here, we describe in further detail the cell lineage of the ciliary bands in the gastropod mollusc I. obsoleta using intracellular lineage tracing and the expression of an acetylated tubulin antigen that serves as a marker for ciliated cells. We find that the I. obsoleta metatroch is formed primarily by third quartet derivatives as well as a small number of second quartet derivatives. These results differ from the described metatrochal lineage in the mollusc C. fornicata that derives solely from the second quartet or the metatrochal lineage in the annelid P. lacteus that derives solely from the third quartet. The present study adds to a growing body of literature concerning the evolution of the metatroch and the plasticity of cell fates in homologous micromeres in spiralian embryos.


Lophotrochozoa Spiralia Mollusc Veliger Prototroch Metatroch Ciliary band 



NSF 0828564 awarded to L. Nagy funded this work. All lineage tracing in the manuscript was carried out by A. Nakamoto.

Supplementary material

427_2013_440_MOESM1_ESM.jpeg (403 kb)
ESM 1 Distribution of 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b deacendants in the velum area. Oregon green dextran (green) was injected into target micromeres. Nuclei (magenta) are stained with DAPI. (a) Contribution of 2a descendants. The labeled cells are distributed to left mantle edge (ml) and ventral metatrochal cells (m). (b) Cell fate of 2b descendants in the velum. 2b derivatives contribute to the food groove in the right and left velum in a mirror symmetric manner with respect to the midline of the larva. 2b descendants also contribute to the left mantle edge. (b’) Higher magnification image indicated with white broken line in (b). Labeled 2d descendants are detected in metatrochal cells (arrow heads). (c) Contribution of 3a descendants to the velum. The labeled cells distribute to the food groove, metatrochal cells, and muscle cells in the left velum. (d) Contribution of 3b derivatives to the velum. Similar to 3a descendants, the labeled cells are detected in the food groove, metatrochal cells, and muscle cells in the right velum. Scale bars, 50μm (a-d); 20μm (b’) (JPEG 403 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cellular BiologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Genetic MedicineWeill Cornell Medical CollegeDohaQatar

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