Development Genes and Evolution

, Volume 221, Issue 3, pp 157–166 | Cite as

HpSumf1 is involved in the activation of sulfatases responsible for regulation of skeletogenesis during sea urchin development

  • Tetsushi Sakuma
  • Kazuya Ohnishi
  • Kazumasa Fujita
  • Hiroshi Ochiai
  • Naoaki Sakamoto
  • Takashi Yamamoto
Original Article


Sulfatases such as arylsulfatase and heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase play important roles in morphogenesis during sea urchin development. For the activation of these sulfatases, Cα-formylglycine formation by sulfatase modifying factor (Sumf) is required. In this study, to clarify the regulatory mechanisms for the activation of sulfatases during sea urchin development, we examined the expression and function of the Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus homologs of Sumf1 and Sumf2 (HpSumf1 and HpSumf2, respectively). Expression of HpSumf1 but not HpSumf2 mRNA was dynamically changed during early development. Functional analyses of recombinant HpSumf1 and HpSumf2 using HEK293T cells expressing mouse arylsulfatase A (ArsA) indicated that HpSumf1 and HpSumf2 were both able to activate mammalian ArsA. Knockdown of HpSumf1 using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides caused abnormal spicule formation in the sea urchin embryo. Injection of HpSumf2 mRNA had no effect on skeletogenesis, while injection of HpSumf1 mRNA induced severe supernumerary spicule formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that HpSumf1 is involved in the activation of sulfatases required for control of skeletogenesis.


Sulfatase Sulfatase modifying factor Skeletogenesis Sea urchin 



The authors thank Dr M. Kiyomoto (Tateyama Marine Laboratory, Ochanomizu University) for supplying the live sea urchins. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tetsushi Sakuma
    • 1
  • Kazuya Ohnishi
    • 1
  • Kazumasa Fujita
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ochiai
    • 1
  • Naoaki Sakamoto
    • 1
  • Takashi Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

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