Advertisement

Development Genes and Evolution

, Volume 217, Issue 7, pp 549–554 | Cite as

Characterization of amphioxus GDF8/11 gene, an archetype of vertebrate MSTN and GDF11

  • Fuguo Xing
  • Xungang TanEmail author
  • Pei-Jun ZhangEmail author
  • Junkai Ma
  • Yuqing Zhang
  • Peng Xu
  • Yongli Xu
Sequence Corner

Abstract

MSTN, also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), and GDF11 are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) subfamily. They have been thought to be derived from one ancestral gene. In the present study, we report the isolation and characterization of an invertebrate GDF8/11 homolog from the amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense). The amphioxus GDF8/11 gene consists of five exons flanked by four introns, which have two more exons and introns than that of other species. In intron III, a possible transposable element was identified. This suggested that this intron might be derived from transposon. The amphioxus GDF8/11 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 419 amino acid residues. Phologenetic analysis shows that the GDF8/11 is at the base of vertebrate MSTNs and GDF11s. This result might prove that the GDF8/11 derived from one ancestral gene and the amphioxus GDF8/11 may be the common ancestral gene, and also the gene duplication event generating MSTN and GDF11 occurred before the divergence of vertebrates and after or at the divergence of amphioxus from vertebrates. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results showed that the GDF8/11 gene was expressed in new fertilized cell, early gastrulation, and knife-shaped embryo, which was different from that in mammals. It suggested that the GDF8/11 gene might possess additional functions other than regulating muscle growth in amphioxus.

Keywords

Amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri GDF8 GDF11 MSTN TGF-β 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Shao-Jun Du (Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute) for his critical review and constructive suggestion. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to Pei Jun Zhang and Shao-Jun Du for International Cooperation and Exchange Projects and the Grant for CAS Oversea Team on MFG.

Supplementary material

References

  1. Biga PR, Roberts SB, Iliev DB, McCauley LAR, Moon JS, Collodi P, Goetz FW (2005) The isolation, characterization, and expression of a novel GDF11 gene and a second myostatin form in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Comp Biochem Physiol B 141:218–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ge G, Hopkins DR, Ho W-B, Greenspan DS (2005) GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Mol Cell Biol 25:5846–5858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (2004) Transforming growth factor-β-related protein, an ancestral and widespread superfamily of cytokines in metazoans. Dev Comp Immunol 28:461–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hu PP, Datto MB, Wang XF (1998) Molecular mechanisms of transforming growth factor-beta signaling. Endocr Rev 19:349–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kim HW, Mykles DL, Goetz FW, Roberts SB (2004) Characterization of a myostatin-like gene from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Biochim Biophys Acta 1679:174–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kocabas AM, Kucuktas H, Dunham RA, Liu Z (2002) Molecular characterization and differential expression of the Myostatin gene in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Biochem Biophys Acta 1575:99–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M (2004) MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5:150–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Langley B, Thomas M, Bisop A, Sharma M, Gilmour S, Kambadur R (2002) Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by downregulating MyoD expression. J Biol Chem 277:49831–49840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li X, Zhang W, Chen D, Liu Y, Huang X, Shi D, Zhang H (2006) Expression of a nove somite-formation-related gene, AmphiSom, during amphioxus development. Dev Genes Evol 216:52–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McPherron AC, Lee SJ (1997) Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:12457–12461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McPherron AC, Lawler AM, Lee SJ (1997) Regulation of skeletal muscle in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. Nature 387:83–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McPherron AC, Lawler AM, Lee SJ (1999) Regulation of anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton by growth/differentiation factor 11. Nat Genet 22:260–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Osborne PW, Luke GN, Holland PWH, Farrier DEK (2006) Identification and characterization of five novel miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Int J Biol Sci 2:54–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Thomas M, Langley B, Berry C, Sharma M, Kirk S, Bass J, Kambadur R (2000) Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, functions by inhibiting myoblast proliferation. J Biol Chem 275:40235–40243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgns DG (1997) The Clustal X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tung TC, Wu SC, Tung YYF (1958) The development of isolated blastomere of amphioxus. Sci Sinica 7:1280–1320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Xu C, Wu G, Zohar Y, Du SJ (2003) Analysis of myostatin gene structure, expression and function in zebrafish. J Exp Boil 206:4067–4079CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations