Development Genes and Evolution

, Volume 214, Issue 11, pp 559–566 | Cite as

Developmental expression of the amphioxus Tbx1/10 gene illuminates the evolution of vertebrate branchial arches and sclerotome

  • Navin R. Mahadevan
  • Amy C. Horton
  • Jeremy J. Gibson-Brown
Short Communication

Abstract

We have isolated an amphioxus T-box gene that is orthologous to the two vertebrate genes, Tbx1 and Tbx10, and examined its expression pattern during embryonic and early larval development. AmphiTbx1/10 is first expressed in branchial arch endoderm and mesoderm of developing neurulae, and in a bilateral, segmented pattern in the ventral half of newly formed somites. Branchial expression is restricted to the first three branchial arches, and disappears completely by 4 days post fertilization. Ventral somitic expression is restricted to the first 10–12 somites, and is not observed in early larvae except in the most ventral mesoderm of the first three branchial arches. No expression can be detected by 4 days post fertilization. Integrating functional, phylogenetic and expression data from amphioxus and a variety of vertebrate model organisms, we have reconstructed the early evolutionary history of the Tbx1/10 subfamily of genes within the chordate lineage. We conclude that Tbx1/10-mediated branchial arch endoderm and mesoderm patterning functions predated the origin of neural crest, and that ventral somite specification functions predated the origin of vertebrate sclerotome, but that Tbx1 was later co-opted during the evolution of developmental programs regulating branchial neural crest and sclerotome migration.

Keywords

T-box Tbx1 Tbx10 Amphioxus Sclerotome 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Navin R. Mahadevan
    • 1
  • Amy C. Horton
    • 1
  • Jeremy J. Gibson-Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA

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