Advertisement

Lifting cognition: a meta-analysis of effects of resistance exercise on cognition

  • Jon-Frederick LandriganEmail author
  • Tyler Bell
  • Michael Crowe
  • Olivio J. Clay
  • Daniel Mirman
Review

Abstract

The health benefits of resistance exercises are well established; however, the effects of resistance training on cognition are not as well understood. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the evidence of resistance exercise’s effects on cognition. A systematic search identified 24 studies that were included in the analyses. These articles ranged in the protocols utilized and in how they studied the effects of resistance training on cognition. Four primary analyses were carried out to assess the effects of resistance exercise on cognitive outcomes: (1) composite cognitive scores, (2) screening measures of cognitive impairment, (3) measures of executive functions, and (4) measures of working memory. Results revealed positive effects of resistance training on composite cognitive scores (SMD 0.71, 95% CI 0.30–1.12), screening measures of cognitive impairment (SMD 1.28, 95% CI 0.39–2.18), and executive functions (SMD 0.39, 95% CI 0.04–0.74), but no effect on measures of working memory (SMD 0.151, 95% CI − 0.21 to 0.51). High heterogeneity was observed in all analyses. Resistance training appears to have positive effects on cognition; however, future research will need to determine why the effects are so variable.

Notes

References

  1. Altug, Z. (2014). Resistance exercise to improve cognitive function. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 36, 46–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansai, J. H., & Rebelatto, J. R. (2015). Effect of two physical exercise protocols on cognition and depressive symptoms in oldest-old people: A randomized controlled trial. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 15(9), 1127–1134.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anstey, K. J., Wood, J., Lord, S., & Walker, J. G. (2005). Cognitive, sensory and physical factors enabling driving safety in older adults. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 45–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.07.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson-Hanley, C., Nimon, J. P., & Westen, S. C. (2010). Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(9), 996–1001.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13803391003662702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Au, J., Sheehan, E., Tsai, N., Duncan, G. J., Buschkuehl, M., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2015). Meta-analysis, improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 22, 366–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2008.05.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Babaei, P., Damirchi, A., Mehdipoor, M., & Tehrani, B. S. (2014). Long term habitual exercise is associated with lower resting level of serum BDNF. Neuroscience Letters, 566, 304–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2014.02.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker, D. G., & Newton, R. U. (2011). Adaptations in upper-body maximal strength and power output resulting from long-term resistance training in experienced strength-power athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 1098–1103.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, L. D. L., & Frank, L. (2012). Effects of aerobic exercise on mild cognitive impairment: A controlled trial. Archives of Neurology, 67, 71–79.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2009.307.Effects.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnett, A., Smith, B., Lord, S. R., Williams, M., & Baumand, A. (2003). Community based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at risk older people: A randomised controlled trial. Age and Ageing, 32, 407–414.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/32.4.407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Best, J. R., Chiu, B. K., Liang Hsu, C., Nagamatsu, L. S., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2015). Long-term effects of resistance exercise training on cognition and brain volume in older women: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21(10), 745–756.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617715000673.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. R. (2010). A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Research synthesis methods, 1, 97–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Borst, S. E. (2004). Interventions for sarcopenia and muscle weakness in older people. Age and Ageing, 33, 548–555.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afh201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bramham, C., & Messaoudi, E. 2005. BDNF function in adult synaptic plasticity: The synaptic consolidation hypothesis. Progress in Neurobiology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.06.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carvalho, A., Rea, I. M., Parimon, T., & Cusack, B. J. (2014). Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: A systematic review. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 661–682.  https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S55520.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Cassilhas, R. C., Tufik, S., & Mello, M. T. (2016). Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 73, 975–983.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-015-2102-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cassilhas, R. C., Viana, VaR., Grassmann, V., Santos, R. T., Santos, R. F., Tufik, S., & Mello, M. T. (2007). The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1401–1407.  https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e318060111f.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cavani, V., Mier, C. M., Musto, A. a., & Tummers, N. (2002). Effects of a 6-week resistance-training program on functional fitness of older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 10, 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chang, Y. K., Pan, C. Y., Chen, F. T., Tsai, C. L., & Huang, C. C. (2012). Effect of resistance-exercise training on cognitive function in healthy older adults: A review. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 20, 497–517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cherup, N., Roberson, K., Potiaumpai, M., Widdowson, K., Jaghab, A., Chowdhari, S., Armitage, C., Seeley, A., & Signorile, J. (2018). Improvements in cognition and associations with measures of aerobic fitness and muscular power following structured exercise. Experimental Gerontology, 112, 76–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.09.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chou, C. H., Hwang, C. L., & Wu, Y. T. (2012). Effect of exercise on physical function, daily living activities, and quality of life in the frail older adults: A meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93, 237–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2011.08.042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chupel, M. U., Direito, F., Furtado, G. E., Minuzzi, L. G., Pedrosa, F. M., Colado, J. C., et al. (2017). Strength training decreases inflammation and increases cognition and physical fitness in older women with cognitive impairment. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Colcombe, S., Erickson, K., Scalf, P., Kim, J., Prakash, R., McAuley, E., Elavsky, S., Marquez, D., Hu, L., & Kramer, A. (2006). Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61A, 1166–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Colcombe, S., & Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Science, 14, 125–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cotman, C. W., Berchtold, N. C., & Christie, L. A. (2007). Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends in Neurosciences, 30, 464–472.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2007.06.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Erickson, K. I., Hillman, C. H., & Kramer, A. F. (2015). Physical activity, brain, and cognition. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 27–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis, J. C., Bryan, S., Marra, C. A., Sharma, D., Chan, A., Beattie, B. L., et al. (2013). An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. PloS One, 8(5), e63031.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063031.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. David, F. J., Robichaud, J. A., Leurgans, S. E., Poon, C., Kohrt, W. M., Goldman, J. G., et al. (2015). Exercise improves cognition in Parkinson’s disease: The PRET-PD randomized, clinical trial. Movement Disorders, 30(12), 1657–1663.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.26291.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Fallah, N., Hsu, C. L., Bolandzadeh, N., Davis, J., Beattie, B. L., Graf, P., et al. (2013). Amultistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function. Annals of Epidemiology, 23(8), 463–468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.05.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Fernandez-Gonzalo, R., Fernandez-Gonzalo, S., Turon, M., Prieto, C., Tesch, P. A., & García-Carreira, M. D. C. (2016). Muscle, functional and cognitive adaptations after flywheel resistance training in stroke patients: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 13(1), 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-016-0144-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fiatarone Singh, M., Gates, N., Saigal, N., Wilson, G. C., Meiklejohn, J., Brodaty, H., Wen, W., Singh, N., Baune, B. T., Suo, C., Baker, M. K., Foroughi, N., Wang, Y., Sachdev, P. S., & Valenzuela, M. (2014). The Study of Mental and Resistance Training (SMART) study—resistance training and/or cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment: A randomized, double-blind, double-sham controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 15, 873–880.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2014.09.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleck, S.J., 1999. Periodized strength training: A critical review. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13, 82–89.  https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(1999)013%3C0082:PSTACR%3E2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fragala, M. S., Beyer, K. S., Jajtner, A. R., Townsend, J. R., Pruna, G. J., Boone, C. H., Bohner, J. D., Fukuda, D. H., Stout, J. R., & Hoffman, J. R. (2014). Resistance exercise may improve spatial awareness and visual reaction in older adults. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28, 2079–2087.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Frontera, W. R., Hughes, V., Fielding, R. A., Fiatarone Singh, M., Evans, W. J., & Roubenoff, R. (2000). Aging of skeletal muscle: A 12-yr longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88, 1321–1326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Furukawa, T. A., Barbui, C., Cipriani, A., Brambilla, P., & Watanabe, N. (2006). Imputing missing standard deviations in meta-analyses can provide accurate results. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 69(1), 7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goekint, M., De Pauw, K., Roelands, B., Njemini, R., Bautmans, I., Mets, T., et al. (2010). Strength training does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor. European Journal of AppliedPhysiology, 110(2), 285–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1461-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gates, N., Fiatarone Singh, M., Sachdev, P. S., & Valenzuela, M. (2013). The effect of exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 1086–1097.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2013.02.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Heyn, P., Abreu, B. C., Ottenbacher, K. J. et al. (2004). The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: A meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 1694–1704.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2004.03.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Higgins, J. P., & Green, S. (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9, 58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hopkins, M. E., Davis, F. C., VanTieghem, M. R., Whalen, P. J., & Bucci, D. J. (2012). Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect. Neuroscience, 215, 59–68.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030561.Striving.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Hötting, K., Schauenburg, G., & Röder, B. (2012). Long-term effects of physical exercise on verbal learning and memory in middle-aged adults: Results of a one-year follow-up study. Brain Sciences, 2, 332–346.  https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci2030332.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Hughes, V., Frontera, W. R., Wood, M., Evans, W. J., Dallal, G. E., Roubenoff, R., & Fiatarone Singh, M. (2001). Longitudinal muscle strength changes in older adults: Influence of muscle mass, physical activity, and health. The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, B209–B217.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.5.B209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Insel, K., Morrow, D., Brewer, B., & Figueredo, A. (2006). Executive function, working memory, and medication adherence among older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, P102–P107.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/61.2.P102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Irandoust, K., & Taheri, M. 2018. The effect of strength training on quality of sleep and psychomotor performance in elderly males. Sleep and Hypnosis 20, 160–165.Google Scholar
  45. Iuliano, E., di Cagno, A., Aquino, G., Fiorilli, G., Mignogna, P., Calcagno, G., & Di Costanzo, A. (2015). Effects of different types of physical activity on the cognitive functions and attention in older people: A randomized controlled study. Experimental Gerontology, 70, 105–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2015.07.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Iuliano, E., Fiorilli, G., Aquino, G., Di Costanzo, A., Calcagno, G., & Di Cagno, A. (2017). Twelve-week exercise influences memory complaint but not memory performance in older adults: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 25, 612–620.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Janssen, I., & Leblanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 40.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Kelly, M. E., Loughrey, D., Lawlor, B. A., Robertson, I. H., Walsh, C., & Brennan, S. (2014). The impact of exercise on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 16, 12–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2014.05.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kennedy, G., Hardman, R. J., Macpherson, H., Scholey, A. B., & Pipingas, A. (2017). How does exercise reduce the rate of age-associated cognitive decline? A review of potential mechanisms. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 55, 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim, K.-E., Jang, S.-N., Lim, S., Park, Y. J., Paik, N.-J., Kim, K. W., Jang, H. C., & Lim, J.-Y. (2012). Relationship between muscle mass and physical performance: Is it the same in older adults with weak muscle strength? Age and Ageing, 41, 799–803.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afs115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kimura, K., Obuchi, S., Arai, T., Nagasawa, H., Shiba, Y., Watanabe, S., & Kojima, M. (2010). The influence of short-term strength training on health-related quality of life and executive cognitive function. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 29, 95–101.  https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.29.95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kirk-Sanchez, N., & McGough, E. L. (2014). Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: Current perspectives. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 51–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kraemer, W. J., & Ratamess, N. A. (2005). Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Medicine, 35, 339–361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kramer, A. F., & Erickson, K. I. (2007). Capitalizing on cortical plasticity: Influence of physical activity on cognition and brain function. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11, 342–348.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2007.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Komulainen, P., Kivipelto, M., Lakka, T. A., Savonen, K., Hassinen, M., Kiviniemi, V., et al. (2010). Exercise, fitness and cognition—A randomised controlled trial in older individuals: The DR’s EXTRA study. European Geriatric Medicine, 1(5), 266–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurger.2010.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. LaStayo, P. C., Ewy, G. A., Pierotti, D. D., Johns, R. K., & Lindstedt, S. (2003). The positive effects of negative work: Increased muscle strength and decreased fall risk in a frail elderly population. The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58, 419–424.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/58.5.M419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lachman, M. E., Neupert, S. D., Bertrand, R., & Jette, A. M. (2006). The effects of strength training on memory in older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity, 14, 59–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Latham, N. K., Bennett, D. A., Stretton, C. M., & Anderson, C. S. (2004). Systematic review of progressive resistance strength training in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 59, 48–61.Google Scholar
  59. Li, F., Fisher, K. J., Harmer, P., McAuley, E., & Wilson, N. L. (2003). Fear of falling in elderly persons: Association with falls, functional ability, and quality of life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, P283–P290.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/58.5.P283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li, Z., Peng, X., Xiang, W., Han, J., & Li, K. (2018). The effect of resistance training on cognitive function in the older adults: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 30, 1259–1273.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-018-0998-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu-Ambrose, T., Nagamatsu, L. S., Voss, M. W., Khan, K. M., & Handy, T. C. (2012). Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: A 12-month randomized controlled trial. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(8), 1690–1698.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.05.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lustig, C., Shah, P., Seidler, R., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2009). Aging, training, and the brain: A review. Neuropsychology Review, 19, 504–522.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Mavros, Y., Gates, N., Wilson, G. C., Jain, N., Meiklejohn, J., Brodaty, H., Wen, W., Singh, N., Baune, B. T., Suo, C., Baker, M. K., Foroughi, N., Wang, Y., Sachdev, P. S., Valenzuela, M., & Fiatarone Singh, M. A. (2017). Mediation of cognitive function improvements by strength gains after resistance training in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: Outcomes of the study of mental and resistance training. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65, 550–559.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Middleton, L., Manini, T., Simonsick, E., Harris, T., Barnes, D., Tylasvsky, F., Brach, J., Everhart, J., & Yaffe, K. (2011). Activity energy expenditure and incident cognitive impairment in older adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171, 1251–1257.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2011.277.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Moreau, D., Morrison, A. B., & Conway, A. R. (2015). An ecological approach to cognitive enhancement: Complex motor training. Acta Psychologica, 157, 44–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.02.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nagamatsu, L. S., Handy, T. C., Hsu, C. L., Voss, M., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2012). Resistance training promotes cognitive and functional brain plasticity in seniors with probable mild cognitive impairment. American Medical Association, 172, 2013–2015.Google Scholar
  67. Nagamatsu, L. S., Chan, A., Davis, J. C., Beattie, B. L., Graf, P., Voss, M. W., et al. (2013). Physical activity improves verbal and spatial memory in older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Journal of Aging Research.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/861893.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Nelson, M. E., Rejeski, W. J., Blair, S. N., Duncan, P. W., & Judge, J. O. (2007). Physical activity and public health in older adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116, 1094–1105.  https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.107.185650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Castillo, M. J., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: A powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ouellette, M. M., LeBrasseur, N. K., Bean, J. F., Phillips, E., Stein, J., Frontera, W. R., & Fielding, R. A. (2004). High-intensity resistance training improves muscle strength, self-reported function, and disability in long-term stroke survivors. Stroke, 35, 1404–1409.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000127785.73065.34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Paillard, T. (2015). Preventive effects of regular physical exercise against cognitive decline and the risk of dementia with age advancement. Sports Medicine Open, 1, 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0016-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Penedo, F. J., & Dahn, J. R. (2005). Exercise and well-being: A review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 189–193.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00001504-200503000-00013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Perrig-chiello, P., Perrig, W. J., Ehrsam, R., & Staehelin, H. B. (1998). The effects of resistance training onwell-being and memory in elderly volunteers. Age and Ageing, 27, 469–475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Peterson, M. D., Rhea, M. R., & Alvar, B. A. (2005). Applications of the dose–response for muscular strength development. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19, 950–958.  https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200511000-00038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Physical Activity [WWW Document], (2016). Retrieved from 11 October 2016, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/Physical-Activity/objectives#5071.
  76. Pluijm, S. M. F., Smit, J. H., Tromp, E. A. M., Stel, V. S., Deeg, D. J. H., Bouter, L. M., & Lips, P. (2006). A risk profile for identifying community-dwelling elderly with a high risk of recurrent falling: Results of a 3-year prospective study. Osteoporosis International, 17, 417–425.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-005-0002-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Radak, Z., Chung, H. Y., & Goto, S. (2008). Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44, 153–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.01.029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rhea, M.R., Ball, S.D., Phillips, W.T., & Burkett, L.N. (2003). A comparison of linear and daily undulating periodized programs with equated volume and intensity for strength. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 17, 82–87.  https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017%3C0082:ACOLAD%3E2.0.CO;2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rovio, S., Kåreholt, I., Helkala, E. L., Viitanen, M., Winblad, B., Tuomilehto, J., Soininen, H., Nissinen, A., & Kivipelto, M. (2005). Leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 4, 705–711.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70198-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sala, G., & Gobet, F. (2017). Does far transfer exist? Negative evidence from chess, music, and working memory training. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26, 515–520.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721417712760.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Sale, D. G. (1988). Neural adaptation to resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20, 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sibley, B. A., & Etnier, J. L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh, N., Clements, K. M., & Fiatarone Singh, M.A. (1997). A randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance training in depressed elders. The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 52, M27–M35.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/52A.1.M27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Skriver, K., Roig, M., Lundbye-Jensen, J., Pingel, J., Helge, J. W., Kiens, B., & Nielsen, J. B. (2014). Acute exercise improves motor memory: Exploring potential biomarkers. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2014.08.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Smith, P. J., Blumenthal, J. A., Hoffman, B. M., Strauman, T. A., Welsh-bohmer, K., Jeffrey, N., & Sherwood, A. (2010). Aerobic exercise and neurocognitive performance: A meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 239–252.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181d14633.Aerobic.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Smolarek, A. C., Boiko Ferreira, L. H., Gomes Mascarenhas, L. P., McAnulty, S. R., Varela, K. D., Dangui, M. C., et al. (2016). The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 11, 749–754.  https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S102126.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Stroth, S., Hille, K., Spitzer, M., & Reinhardt, R. (2009). Aerobic endurance exercise benefits memory and affect in young adults. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 19, 223–243.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09602010802091183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Suo, C., Singh, M. F., Gates, N., Wen, W., Sachdev, P., Brodaty, H., Saigal, N., Wilson, G. C., Meiklejohn, J., Singh, N., Baune, B. T., Baker, M., Foroughi, N., Wang, Y., Mavros, Y., Lampit, A., Leung, I., & Valenzuela, M. J. (2016). Therapeutically relevant structural and functional mechanisms triggered by physical and cognitive exercise. Molecular Psychiatry, 21, 1633–1642.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2016.19.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Simons, D.J., Boot, W.R., Charness, N., Gathercole, S.E., Chabris, C.F., Hambrick, D.Z., Stine-Morrow, E.A.L., (2016). Do “Brain-Training” programs work? Psychology Science Public Interest. 17, 103–186.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100616661983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. ten Brinke, L. F., Bolandzadeh, N., Nagamatsu, L. S., Hsu, C. L., Davis, J. C., Miran-Khan, K., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2015). Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume in older women with probable mild cognitive impairment: A 6-month randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49, 248–254.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Timinkul, A., Kato, M., Omori, T., Deocaris, C. C., Ito, A., Kizuka, T., Sakairi, Y., Nishijima, T., Asada, T., & Soya, H. (2008). Enhancing effect of cerebral blood volume by mild exercise in healthy young men: A near-infrared spectroscopy study. Neuroscience Research, 61, 242–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2008.03.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Vasques, P. E., Moraes, H., Silveira, H., Deslandes, A. C., & Laks, J. (2011). Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: The effect of dual-tasks. Clinics, 66, 1553–1557.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322011000900008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Venturelli, M., Lanza, M., Muti, E., & Schena, F. (2010). Positive effects of physical training in activity of daily living-dependent older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 36(2), 190–205.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03610731003613771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Verburgh, L., Königs, M., Scherder, E. J. A., & Oosterlaan, J. (2014). Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 973–979.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analysis in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36, 1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Voss, M. W., Nagamatsu, L. S., Liu-ambrose, T., & Kramer, A. F. (2011). Exercise, brain, and cognition across the life span. Journal of Applied Physiology, 111, 1505–1513.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00210.2011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Warburton, D. E. R., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. D. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. CMAJ, 174, 801–809.  https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051351.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Yerokhin, V., Anderson-Hanley, C., Hogan, M. J., Dunnam, M., Huber, D., Osborne, S., & Shulan, M. (2012). Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: A pilot study. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 380–401.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2011.628378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yoon, D. H., Kang, D., Kim, H., Kim, J.-S., Song, H. S., & Song, W. (2016). Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment. Geriatrics and Gerontology International.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12784.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Yoon, D. H., & Song, W. (2018). Effects of resistance exercise training on cognitive function and physical performance in cognitive frailty. A Randomized Controlled Trial, 22, 944–951.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon-Frederick Landrigan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tyler Bell
    • 2
  • Michael Crowe
    • 2
  • Olivio J. Clay
    • 2
  • Daniel Mirman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations