Differences in modal distortion in time perception due to working memory capacity: a response with a developmental study in children and adults
- 97 Downloads
This study tested the modality effect on time judgment in a bisection task in children and adults when auditory and visual stimuli were presented in the same session. Cognitive capacities of children and adults were assessed with different neuropsychological tests. The results showed a modality effect, with the auditory stimuli judged longer than the visual stimuli. However, this modality distortion in time judgment was higher in the younger children. Statistical analyses revealed that the size of this time distortion was directly related to individual working memory capacities.
The authors thank Sophie Biron (Psychology Master’s student co-directed by a PhD student, Pierre Zélanti) who collected a large proportion (73%) of the children’s data at school, the other children being recruited by Quentin Hallez (PhD student). We also thank Laétitia Bartomeuf (research assistant) who collected the adults’ data at the university. We are also grateful to the directors and the teachers of the Elsa Triolet nursery school at Vic-Le-Conte and the “Centre” primary school at Issoire.
This study was funded by H2020 European Research Council (BE) (TIMESTORM—H2020—FETPROACT-2014).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Sylvie Droit-Volet declares that she has no conflict of interest. Quentin Hallez declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This experiment was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration. All children were voluntary to participate in this study. The children’s parents, and the students signed written informed consent to participate in this study, which was approved by the ethical standards of the French research committee (academy) of the French National Education Ministry.
- Asaoka, R., & Gyoba, J. (2015). Effects of sensory modality and retention delay on time reproduction performance. The Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science, 34(1), 53–59.Google Scholar
- Atkinson, J. (2000). The developing visual brain. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 47–90). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Bjorklund, D. V., & Causey, K. B. (2018). Children’s thinking: Cognitive development and individual differences. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
- Cohen, M. J. (1997). Examiner manual: Children memory scale. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
- Hallez, Q., & Droit-Volet, S. (2017). High levels of time contraction in young children in dual task are related to their limited attention capacities. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 161, 148–160Google Scholar
- Jain, A., Bansal, R., Kumar, A., & Singh, K. D. (2015). comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical first year students. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research, 5(2), 124–127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Manly, T., Robertson, I. H., Anderson, V., & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1999). Tests of everyday attention for children. Flempton: Thames Valley Test Company.Google Scholar
- McCormack, T. (2015). The development of temporal cognition. In: R. M. Lerner, L. S. Liben & U. Müller, Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, Cognitive Processes, 7th edition, Volume 2. Willey, pp. 624–670.Google Scholar
- Ogden, R. S., Samuels, M., Simmons, F., Wearden, J., & Montgomery, C. (2017). The differential recruitment of short-term memory and executive functions during time, number, and length perception: An individual differences approach. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1–14.Google Scholar
- Penney, T. B. (2003). Modality differences in interval timing: Attention, clock speed, and memory. In W. H. Meck (Ed.), Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing (pp. 209–234). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Rustic, J., & Enns, J. T. (2015). Attentional development. In R. M. Lerner, L. Liben & U. Mueller (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (pp. 158–203). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Stauffer, C. C., Haldemann, J., Troche, S. J., & Rammsayer, T. H. (2012). Auditory and visual temporal sensitivity: evidence for a hierarchical structure of modality-specific and modality-independent levels of temporal information processing. Psychological Research, 76, 20–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wearden, J., Edwards, H., Fakhri, M., & Percival, A. (1998). Why sounds are judged longer than lights: Application of a model of the internal clock in humans. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51B, 97–120.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (1998). WAIS III and WMS-III manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar