Stimulating numbers: signatures of finger counting in numerosity processing
- 150 Downloads
Finger counting is one of the first steps in the development of mature number concepts. With a one-to-one correspondence of fingers to numbers in Western finger counting, fingers hold two numerical meanings: one is based on the number of fingers raised and the second is based on their ordinal position within the habitual finger counting sequence. This study investigated how these two numerical meanings of fingers are intertwined with numerical cognition in adults. Participants received tactile stimulation on their fingertips of one hand and named either the number of fingers stimulated (2, 3, or 4 fingers; Experiment 1) or the number of stimulations on one fingertip (2, 3, or 4 stimulations; Experiment 2). Responses were faster and more accurate when the set of stimulated fingers corresponded to finger counting habits (Experiment 1) and when the number of stimulations matched the ordinal position of the stimulated finger (Experiment 2). These results show that tactile numerosity perception is affected by individual finger counting habits and that those habits give numerical meaning to single fingers.
This research was supported by DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) Grant Fi-1915/2 - 1 “manumerical cognition”.
This study was funded by DFG (Grant number Fi-1915/2 - 1 on “manumerical cognition”).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All experiments of the study were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (2009). Inglorious Basterds [Motion Picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.Google Scholar
- Brozzoli, C., Ishihara, M., Göbel, S. M., Salemme, R., Rossetti, Y., & Farnè, A. (2008). Touch perception reveals the dominance of spatial over digital representation of numbers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(14), 5644–5648.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Domahs, F., Kaufmann, L., & Fischer, M. H. (Eds.) (2012). Handy numbers: Finger counting and numerical cognition. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA.Google Scholar
- Morrissey, K. R., Liu, M., Kang, J., Hallett, D., & Wang, Q. (2016). Cross-cultural and intra-cultural differences in finger-counting habits and number magnitude processing: Embodied numerosity in Canadian and Chinese university students. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 2(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.5964/jnc.v2i1.14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team. (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/.