The effects of training on tactile enumeration

  • Zahira Z. Cohen
  • Daniela Aisenberg
  • Avishai Henik
Original Article

Abstract

Subitizing is a fast and accurate process of enumerating small quantities. Whether subitizing carried out in the tactile modality is under debate. We previously found a moderately increasing RT slope from one to four stimuli and a large decrease in RT for five stimuli when using one hand. Yet, a high error rate was observed, making it difficult to determine if the RT pattern found was indeed subitizing. To increase accuracy, we carried out training of the tactile enumeration task using one hand for 6 days. We compared performance in the trained and additional non-trained tasks between two groups—the 6-day training group (6DT) and the non-trained controls (C)—after three periods (1 week, 1 and 6 months after the training of the 6DT group ended). Results showed an increase in accuracy rates for both groups but a decrease in RT for the 6DT group only for the trained task. This RT improvement was present even after 6 months. Importantly, the RT slope of one-hand enumeration did not change after training, showing a moderately increased slope up to four stimuli and a decrease for five stimuli. Our study shows the training long-term effect on tactile enumeration and emphasizes the embodiment of finger counting on enumeration. Two possible enumeration processes are discussed—accelerated counting and subitizing—both based on spatial cues and pattern recognition of familiarized finger-counting patterns.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was conducted as part of the research in the Center for the Study of the Neurocognitive Basis of Numerical Cognition, supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant 1799/12) in the framework of their Centers of Excellence. We wish to thank the leading research assistants (in alphabetical order): Shachar Hochman, Michal Krimolowsky, Yaara Mannes, Adi Soria, Sol Yaakobovich, and Meital Zvi. Special thanks are given to Desiree Meloul for her tremendous help along the way.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interests that might be interpreted as influencing the research.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahira Z. Cohen
    • 1
  • Daniela Aisenberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • Avishai Henik
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.Zlotowski Center for NeuroscienceBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael

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