Advertisement

Psychological Research

, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 429–438 | Cite as

Now you make false memories; now you do not: the order of presentation of words in DRM lists influences the production of the critical lure in Alzheimer’s disease

  • Christelle Evrard
  • Anne-Laure Gilet
  • Fabienne Colombel
  • Elodie Dufermont
  • Yves Corson
Original Article

Abstract

Why do some Alzheimer’s patients produce fewer false memories than healthy older participants in the DeeseRoedigerMcDermott paradigm, which was especially designed for the study of false memories in a laboratory setting? Using a very simple methodology, this study examines a new explanatory factor inherent in the paradigm itself: the order of presentation of the words in the lists. A sample comprising 149 participants (36 younger, 40 middle-aged, 37 healthy older adults, and 36 Alzheimer’s patients) performed a DRM task with either a classic descending forward associative strength (FAS) presentation order of the words or an ascending FAS presentation order. The results showed that this simple manipulation influenced the production of false memories in Alzheimer’s patients only. Contrary to the other participants, Alzheimer’s patients produced significantly more critical lures in the ascending FAS condition than in the descending FAS condition. These new data, interpreted in the light of serial position effects, invite a reconsideration of the relevance of the DRM paradigm for comparing the production of false memories in Alzheimer’s patients and healthy older participants.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank P. Chapelan, M. Ganemtore, C. Marie, and C. Vilhem for their assistance in recruitment and data collection.

References

  1. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2, 89–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baddeley, A. D. (2003). Working Memory: Looking Back and Looking Forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 829–839. doi: 10.1038/nrn1201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1994). Developments in the concept of working memory. Neuropsychology, 8(4), 485–493. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.8.4.485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balota, D. A., Cortese, M. J., Duchek, J. M., Adams, D., Roediger, H. L., III, McDermott, K. B., & Yerys, B. E. (1999). Veridical and false memories in healthy older adults and in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 16(3–5), 361–384. doi: 10.1080/026432999380834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayley, P. J., Salmon, D. P., Bondi, M. W., Bui, B. K., Olichney, J., Delis, D. C., & Thal, L. J. (2000). Comparison of the serial position effect in very mild Alzheimer’s disease, mild Alzheimer’s disease, and amnesia associated with electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6(3), 290–298. doi: 10.1017/s1355617700633040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaunieux, H., Eustache, F., Busson, P., De La Sayette, V., Viader, F., & Desgranges, B. (2012). Cognitive procedural learning in early Alzheimer’s disease: Impaired processes and compensatory mechanisms. Journal of Neuropsychology, 6(1), 31–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-6653.2011.02002.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-David, B. M., Tewari, A., Shakuf, V., & Van Lieshout, P. H. (2014). Stroop effects in Alzheimer’s disease: Selective attention speed of processing, or color-naming? A meta-analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 38(4), 923–938. doi: 10.3233/JAD-131244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (2002). Fuzzy-trace theory and false memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5), 164–169. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V., & Mojardin, A. (2001). Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27(2), 307–327. doi: 10.1037//0278-7393.27.2.307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruno, D., Reiss, P. T., Petkova, E., Sidtis, J. J., & Pomara, N. (2013). Decreased recall of primacy words predicts cognitive decline. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 28(2), 95–103. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acs116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Budson, A. E., Daffner, K. R., Desikan, R., & Schacter, D. L. (2000). When false recognition is unopposed by true recognition: gist-based memory distortion in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 14(2), 277–287. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.14.2.277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Budson, A. E., Sullivan, A. L., Mayer, E., Daffner, K. R., Black, P., & Schacter, D. L. (2002). Suppression of false recognition in Alzheimer’s disease and in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Brain, 125(12), 2750–2765. doi: 10.1093/brain/awf277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Canolle, M., Messaoudi, M., Ayoub, B., Descours, I., Bocquet, P., Gely-Nargeot, M.-C., & Touchon, J. (2008). Valeur prototypique des intrusions sémantiques dans la maladie d’Alzheimer. Psychologie & NeuroPsychiatrie du vieillissement, 6(1), 67–79. doi: 10.1684/pnv.2008.0115.Google Scholar
  14. Corson, Y., & Verrier, N. (2007). Emotions and false memories valence or arousal? Psychological Science, 18(3), 208–211. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01874.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Craik, F. I., Byrd, M., & Swanson, J. M. (1987). Patterns of memory loss in three elderly samples. Psychology and Aging, 2(1), 79–86. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.2.1.79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58(1), 17–22. doi: 10.1037/h0046671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dehon, H., & Brédart, S. (2004). False memories: young and older adults think of semantic associates at the same rate, but young adults are more successful at source monitoring. Psychology and Aging, 19(1), 191–197. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.19.1.191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dennis, N. A., Kim, H., & Cabeza, R. (2007). Effects of aging on true and false memory formation: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 45(14), 3157–3166. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.07.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Derouesné, C., Poitreneau, J., Hugonot, L., Kalafat, M., Dubois, B., & Laurent, B. (1999). Le Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): Un outil pratique pour l’évaluation de l’état cognitif des patients par le clinicien version française consensuelle. La Presse Médicale, 28(21), 1141–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Egli, S. C., Beck, I. R., Berres, M., Foldi, N. S., Monsch, A. U., & Sollberger, M. (2014). Serial position effects are sensitive predictors of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 10(5), S420–S424. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.09.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. El Haj, M., Fasotti, L., & Allain, P. (2012). Source monitoring in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Cognition, 80(2), 185–191. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.06.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Evrard, C., Colombel, F., Gilet, A. L., & Corson, Y. (2016). Intact semantic priming of critical lures in Alzheimer’s disease: Implications for false memory. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 71(4), 671–674. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbv006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foldi, N. S., Brickman, A. M., Schaefer, L. A., & Knutelska, M. E. (2003). Distinct serial position profiles and neuropsychological measures differentiate late life depression from normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatry Research, 120(1), 71–84. doi: 10.1016/S0165-1781(03)00163-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Foldi, N. S., Lobosco, J. J., & Schaefer, L. A. (2002). The effect of attentional dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease: theoretical and practical implications. Paper presented at the Seminars in speech and language.Google Scholar
  25. Gallo, D. A. (2006). Associative illusions of memory: False memory research in DRM and related tasks. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  26. Gallo, D. A. (2010). False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of the DRM illusion. Memory & Cognition, 38(7), 833–848. doi: 10.3758/MC.38.7.833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gallo, D. A., Shahid, K. R., Olson, M. A., Solomon, T. M., Schacter, D. L., & Budson, A. E. (2006). Overdependence on degraded gist memory in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 20(6), 625–632. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.20.6.625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Giffard, B., Desgranges, B., & Eustache, F. (2005). Semantic memory disorders in Alzheimer’s disease: clues from semantic priming effects. Current Alzheimer Research, 2(4), 425–434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Giffard, B., Desgranges, B., Nore-Mary, F., Lalevée, C., de la Sayette, V., Pasquier, F., & Eustache, F. (2001). The nature of semantic memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain, 124(8), 1522–1532. doi: 10.1093/brain/124.8.1522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Giffard, B., Laisney, M., Desgranges, B., & Eustache, F. (2015). An exploration of the semantic network in Alzheimer’s disease: Influence of emotion and concreteness of concepts. Cortex, 69, 201–211. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2004.08.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gilet, A.-L., Evrard, C., Colombel, F., Tropée, E., Marie, C., & Corson, Y. (2016). False memories in Alzheimer’s disease: Intact semantic priming but impaired production of critical lures. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbw032.Google Scholar
  32. Hester, R. L., Kinsella, G. J., & Ong, B. (2004). Effect of age on forward and backward span tasks. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10(04), 475–481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Howieson, D. B., Mattek, N., Seeyle, A. M., Dodge, H. H., Wasserman, D., Zitzelberger, T., & Jeffrey, K. (2011). Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 292–299. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2010.516742.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kelley, M. R., Neath, I., & Surprenant, A. M. (2015). Serial position functions in general knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41(6), 1715–1727. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Koutstaal, W., Schacter, D. L., Galluccio, L., & Stofer, K. A. (1999). Reducing gist-based false recognition in older adults: encoding and retrieval manipulations. Psychology and Aging, 14(2), 220–237. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.14.2.220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. La Rue, A., Hermann, B., Jones, J. E., Johnson, S., Asthana, S., & Sager, M. A. (2008). Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer’s disease on serial position profiles. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 4(4), 285–290. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2008.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laisney, M., Giffard, B., Belliard, S., De La Sayette, V., Desgranges, B., & Eustache, F. (2011). When the zebra loses its stripes: Semantic priming in early Alzheimer’s disease and semantic dementia. Cortex, 47(1), 35–46. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2009.11.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. LaVoie, D. J., & Faulkner, K. (2000). Age differences in false recognition using a forced choice paradigm. Experimental Aging Research, 26(4), 367–381. doi: 10.1080/036107300750015750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Martín, M. E., Sasson, Y., Crivelli, L., Roldán Gerschovich, E., Campos, J. A., Calcagno, M. L., & Allegri, R. F. (2013). Relevance of the serial position effect in the differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer-type dementia, and normal ageing. Neurología (English Edition), 28(4), 219–225. doi: 10.1016/j.nrleng.2012.04.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McCabe, D. P., & Smith, A. D. (2002). The effect of warnings on false memories in young and older adults. Memory & Cognition, 30(7), 1065–1077. doi: 10.3758/BF03194324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McDermott, K. B. (1996). The persistence of false memories in list recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 35(2), 212–230. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1996.0012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McEvoy, C. L., Nelson, D. L., & Komatsu, T. (1999). What is the connection between true and false memories? The differential roles of interitem associations in recall and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25(5), 1177–1194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. McKhann, G. M., Knopman, D. S., Chertkow, H., Hyman, B. T., Jack, C. R., Jr., Kawas, C. H., & Mayeux, R. (2011). The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 7(3), 263–269. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Meyer, A. M., Snider, S. F., Campbell, R. E., & Friedman, R. B. (2015). Phonological short-term memory in logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 71, 183–189. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.07.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Murdock, B. B. (1962). The serial position effect of free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(5), 482–488. doi: 10.1037/h0045106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Norman, K. A., & Schacter, D. L. (1997). False recognition in younger and older adults: Exploring the characteristics of illusory memories. Memory & Cognition, 25(6), 838–848. doi: 10.3758/BF03211328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ober, B. A. (2002). RT and non-RT methodology for semantic priming research with Alzheimer’s disease patients: A critical review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(7), 883–911. doi: 10.1076/jcen.24.7.883.8384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Orru, G., Sampietro, S., Catanzaro, S., Girardi, A., Najjar, M., Giantin, V., & Inelmen, E. (2009). Serial position effect in a free recall task: differences between probable dementia of Alzheimer type (PDAT), vascular (VaD) and mixed etiology dementia (MED). Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49, 207–210. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2009.09.030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Petersen, R. C., Smith, G., Kokmen, E., Ivnik, R. J., & Tangalos, E. G. (1992). Memory function in normal aging. Neurology, 42(2), 396. doi: 10.1212/WNL.42.2.396.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (2011). Dual processes in decision making and developmental neuroscience: A fuzzy-trace model. Developmental Review, 31(2), 180–206. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2011.07.004.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Roediger, H. L., Balota, D. A., & Watson, J. M. (2001). Spreading activation and arousal of false memories. The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder, 95–115. doi: 10.1037/10394-006.
  52. Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(4), 803–814. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.21.4.803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spaan, P. E., Raaijmakers, J. G., & Jonker, C. (2003). Alzheimer’s disease versus normal ageing: a review of the efficiency of clinical and experimental memory measures. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(2), 216–233. doi: 10.1076/jcen.25.2.216.13638.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Spencer, W. D., & Raz, N. (1995). Differential effects of aging on memory for content and context: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 10(4), 527–539. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.10.4.527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Spieler, D. H., Balota, D. A., & Faust, M. E. (1996). Stroop performance in healthy younger and older adults and in individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22(2), 461. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.22.2.461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Thomas, A. K., & Sommers, M. S. (2005). Attention to item-specific processing eliminates age effects in false memories. Journal of Memory and Language, 52(1), 71–86. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2004.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Waldie, B. D., & Kwong See, S. T. (2003). Remembering words never presented: False memory effects in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 10(4), 281–297. doi: 10.1076/anec.10.4.281.28969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Watson, J. M., Balota, D. A., & Sergent-Marshall, S. D. (2001). Semantic, phonological, and hybrid veridical and false memories in healthy older adults and in individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Neuropsychology, 15(2), 254–267. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.15.2.254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wechsler, D. (2000). Manuel de l’Echelle d’Intelligence de Wechsler pour adultes, 3ème édition [Manual of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, Third edition]: Paris: ECPA.Google Scholar
  60. Wright, R. E. (1982). Adult age similarities in free recall output order and strategies. Journal of Gerontology, 37(1), 76–79. doi: 10.1093/geronj/37.1.76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christelle Evrard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anne-Laure Gilet
    • 1
  • Fabienne Colombel
    • 1
  • Elodie Dufermont
    • 1
  • Yves Corson
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Psychologie des Pays de la Loire LPPL-EA 4638, Faculté de PsychologieUniversité de NantesNantesFrance
  2. 2.Centre Mémoire Ressources et RecherchesCentre Hospitalier UniversitaireNantesFrance

Personalised recommendations