Psychological Research

, Volume 79, Issue 2, pp 308–317 | Cite as

Memory for faces: the effect of facial appearance and the context in which the face is encountered

  • Katia Mattarozzi
  • Alexander Todorov
  • Maurizio Codispoti
Original Article


We investigated the effects of appearance of emotionally neutral faces and the context in which the faces are encountered on incidental face memory. To approximate real-life situations as closely as possible, faces were embedded in a newspaper article, with a headline that specified an action performed by the person pictured. We found that facial appearance affected memory so that faces perceived as trustworthy or untrustworthy were remembered better than neutral ones. Furthermore, the memory of untrustworthy faces was slightly better than that of trustworthy faces. The emotional context of encoding affected the details of face memory. Faces encountered in a neutral context were more likely to be recognized as only familiar. In contrast, emotionally relevant contexts of encoding, whether pleasant or unpleasant, increased the likelihood of remembering semantic and even episodic details associated with faces. These findings suggest that facial appearance (i.e., perceived trustworthiness) affects face memory. Moreover, the findings support prior evidence that the engagement of emotion processing during memory encoding increases the likelihood that events are not only recognized but also remembered.


False Alarm Rate Source Memory Facial Appearance Stimulus Person Emotional Context 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Jenny Porter and Olivia Kang for their help with the data collection, and Taneisha Berg for the English revision.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 1520 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 107 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katia Mattarozzi
    • 1
  • Alexander Todorov
    • 2
  • Maurizio Codispoti
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty MedicineUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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