Auditory spatial negative priming: What is remembered of irrelevant sounds and their locations?
The categorization and identification of previously ignored visual or auditory stimuli is typically slowed down—a phenomenon that has been called the negative priming effect and can be explained by the episodic retrieval of response-inadequate prime information and/or an inhibitory model. A similar after-effect has been found in visuospatial tasks: participants are slowed down in localizing a visual stimulus that appears at a previously ignored location. In the auditory modality, however, such an after-effect of ignoring a sound at a specific location has never been reported. Instead, participants are impaired in their localization performance when the sound at the previously ignored location changes identity, a finding which is compatible with the so-called feature-mismatch hypothesis. Here, we describe the properties of auditory spatial in contrast to visuospatial negative priming and report two experiments that specify the nature of this auditory after-effect. Experiment 1 shows that the detection of identity-location mismatches is a genuinely auditory phenomenon that can be replicated even when the sound sources are invisible. Experiment 2 reveals that the detection of sound-identity mismatches in the probe depends on the processing demands in the prime. This finding implies that the localization of irrelevant sound sources is not the inevitable consequence of processing the auditory prime scenario but depends on the difficulty of the target search process among distractor sounds.
KeywordsNegative Priming Negative Priming Effect Target Sound Prime Distractor Spatial Negative Priming
The research reported in this article was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsge-meinschaft (Ma 2610/2-2).
- Bregman, A. S. (1990). Auditory scene analysis: The perceptual organization of sounds. London: The MIT press.Google Scholar
- Bronkhorst, A. (2000). The cocktail party phenomenon: A review of research on speech intelligibility in multiple-talker conditions. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 86, 117–128.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Coles, M. G. H., Gratton, G., Bashore, T. R., Eriksen, C. W., & Donchin, E. (1985). A psychophysiological investigation of the continuous flow model of human information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 11(5), 529–553. doi: 10.1037/0096-1518.104.22.1689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eckstein, M. P. (2011). Visual search: A retrospective. Journal of Vision 11(5), Art no. 14. doi: 10.1167/11.5.14.
- Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.Google Scholar
- Houghton, G., & Tipper, S. P. (1994). A model of inhibitory mechanisms in selective attention. In D. Dagenbach & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory mechanisms of attention, memory, and language (pp. 53–112). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Mayr, S., & Buchner, A. (2013). Intact episodic retrieval in older adults: Evidence from an auditory negative priming task. Experimental Aging Research (in press).Google Scholar
- Milliken, B., Tipper, S. P., & Weaver, B. (1994). Negative priming in a spatial localization task: Feature mismatching and distractor inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20(3), 624–646.Google Scholar
- Shackleton, T. M., Meddis, R., & Hewitt, M. J. (1994). The role of binaural and fundamental frequency difference cues in the identification of concurrently presented vowels. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 47A(3), 545–563. doi: 10.1080/14640749408401127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar