Psychological Research

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 260–276 | Cite as

Displacement of location in illusory line motion

  • Timothy L. HubbardEmail author
  • Susan E. Ruppel
Original Article


Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to “unfold” or “be drawn” from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.


Retention Interval Apparent Motion Spatial Average Target Line Probe Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderson, J. R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bartley, S. H., & Wilkinson, F. R. (1953). Some factors in the production of gamma movement. Journal of Psychology, 36, 201–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bavelier, D., Schneider, K. A., & Monacelli, A. (2002). Reflexive gaze orienting induces the line-motion illusion. Vision Research, 42, 2817–2827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bryant, D. J., & Subbiah, I. (1994). Subjective landmarks in perception and memory for spatial location. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 119–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crawford, T. J., Kean, M., Klein, R. M., & Hamm, J. P. (2006). The effects of illusory line motion on incongruent saccades: Implications for saccadic eye movements and visual attention. Experimental Brain Research, 173, 498–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Downing, P. E., & Treisman, A. M. (1997). The line-motion illusion: Attention or impletion? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 768–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eagleman, D. M., & Sejnowski, T. J. (2003). The line-motion illusion can be reversed by motion signals after the line disappears. Perception, 32, 963–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Erlhagen, W., & Jancke, D. (2004). The role of action plans and other cognitive factors in motion extrapolation: A modeling study. Visual Cognition, 11, 315–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fuller, S., & Carrasco, M. (2009). Perceptual consequences of visual performance fields: The case of the line motion illusion. Journal of Vision, 9(13), 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamm, J. P., & Klein, R. M. (2002). Does attention follow the motion in the “shooting line” illusion? Perception & Psychophysics, 64, 279–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harrower, M. R. (1929). Some experiments on the nature of gamma movement. Psychologische Forschung, 13, 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayes, A. E., & Freyd, J. J. (2002). Representational momentum when attention is divided. Visual Cognition, 9, 8–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hikosaka, O., Miyauchi, S., & Shimojo, S. (1993a). Focal visual attention produces illusory temporal order and motion sensation. Vision Research, 33, 1219–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hikosaka, O., Miyauchi, S., & Shimojo, S. (1993b). Voluntary and stimulus-induced attention detection as motion sensation. Perception, 22, 517–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hubbard, T. L. (1993). The effects of context on visual representational momentum. Memory & Cognition, 21, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Judged displacement: A modular process? American Journal of Psychology, 107, 359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Environmental invariants in the representation of motion: Implied dynamics and representational momentum, gravity, friction, and centripetal force. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 322–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hubbard, T. L. (2005). Representational momentum and related displacements in spatial memory: A review of the findings. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 822–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Computational theory and cognition in representational momentum and related types of displacement: A reply to Kerzel. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 174–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum contributes to motion induced mislocalization of stationary objects. Visual Cognition, 16, 44–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hubbard, T. L., Blessum, J. A., & Ruppel, S. E. (2001). Representational momentum and Michotte’s (1946/1963) “Launching Effect” paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 294–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2008). The onset repulsion effect and motion induced mislocalization of a stationary object. Perception, 37, 1386–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hubbard, T. L., Kumar, A. M., & Carp, C. L. (2009). Effects of spatial cueing on representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 666–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2005). An effect of context on whether memory for initial position exhibits a Fröhlich effect or an onset repulsion effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 961–979.Google Scholar
  25. Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum and the landmark attraction effect. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 242–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2002). A possible role of naive impetus in Michotte’s “Launching Effect:” Evidence from representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 9, 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011a). The effect of spatial cuing on the onset repulsion effect. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 2236–2248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011b). Effects of temporal and spatial separation on velocity and strength of illusory line motion. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 1133–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hubbard, T. L., Ruppel, S. E., & Courtney, J. R. (2005). The force of appearance: Gamma movement, naive impetus, and representational momentum. Psicologica, 26, 209–228.Google Scholar
  30. Jancke, D., Chavane, F., Naaman, S., & Grinvald, A. (2004). Imaging correlates of illusion in early visual cortex. Nature, 428, 423–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jancke, D., & Erlhagen, W. (2010). Bridging the gap: A model of common neural mechanisms underlying the Fröhlich effect, the flash-lag effect, and the representational momentum effect. In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.), Space and time in perception and action (pp. 422–440). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kawahara, J., & Yokosawa, K. (2001). Preattentive perception of multiple illusory line-motion: A formal model of parallel independent-detection in visual search. Journal of General Psychology, 128, 357–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kawahara, J., Yokosawa, K., Nishida, S., & Sato, T. (1996). Illusory line motion in visual search: Attentional facilitation or apparent motion. Perception, 25, 901–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kerzel, D. (2002a). Attention shifts and memory averaging. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 425–443.Google Scholar
  35. Kerzel, D. (2002b). Memory for the position of stationary objects: Disentangling foveal bias and memory averaging. Vision Research, 42, 159–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kerzel, D. (2003). Mental extrapolation of target position is strongest with weak motion signals and motor responses. Vision Research, 43, 2623–2635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kerzel, D. (2006). Why eye movements and perceptual factors have to be controlled in studies on “Representational Momentum”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 166–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kerzel, D. (2010). The Fröhlich effect: Past and present. In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.), Space and time in perception and action (pp. 321–337). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kerzel, D., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2004). Spatial distortions and processing latencies in the onset repulsion and Fröhlich effects. Vision Research, 44, 577–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Munger, M. P., & Minchew, J. H. (2002). Parallels between remembering and predicting an object’s location. Visual Cognition, 9, 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Müsseler, J., & Kerzel, D. (2004). The trial context determines adjusted localization of stimuli: Reconciling the Fröhlich and onset repulsion effects. Vision Research, 44, 2201–2206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Müsseler, J., Stork, S., & Kerzel, D. (2002). Comparing mislocalizations with moving stimuli: The Fröhlich effect, the flash-lag, and representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 9, 120–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Müsseler, J., van der Heijden, A. H. C., Mahmud, S. H., Deubel, H., & Ertsey, S. (1999). Relative mislocalization of briefly presented stimuli in the retinal periphery. Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 1646–1661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nagai, M., & Saiki, J. (2005). Illusory motion and representational momentum. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 855–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nelson, T. O., & Chaiklin, S. (1980). Immediate memory for spatial location. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 6, 529–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Postma, A., Huntjens, R. J. C., Meuwissen, M., & Laeng, B. (2006). The time course of spatial memory processing in the two hemispheres. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1914–1918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scharlau, I., & Horstmann, G. (2006). Perceptual latency priming and illusory line motion: Facilitation by gradients of attention? Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 2, 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmidt, W. (2000). Endogenous attention and illusory line motion reexamined. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 980–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shimojo, S., Hikosaka, O., & Miyauchi, S. (1999). Automatic and controlled attention detected by the line motion effect. In D. Gopher & A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and performance XVII: Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp. 145–163). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  50. Steinman, B. A., Steinman, S. B., & Lehmkuhle, S. (1995). Visual attention mechanisms show a center-surround organization. Vision Research, 35, 1859–1869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thornton, I. M. (2002). The onset repulsion effect. Spatial Vision, 15, 219–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. van der Ham, I. J. M., van Wezel, R. J. A., Oleksiak, A., & Postma, A. (2007). The time course of hemisphere differences in categorical and coordinate spatial processing. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2492–2498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. von Grünau, M., Dube, S., & Kwas, M. (1996). Two contributions to motion induction: A preattentive effect and facilitation due to attentional capture. Vision Research, 36, 2447–2457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. von Grünau, M., & Faubert, J. (1994). Intraattribute and interattribute motion induction. Perception, 23, 913–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Whitney, D., & Cavanagh, P. (2002). Surrounding motion affects the perceived locations of moving stimuli. Visual Cognition, 9, 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Winters, J. J. (1964). Gamma movement: Apparent movement in figural aftereffects experiments. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 19, 819–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTexas Christian UniversityFort WorthUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South Carolina, UpstateSpartanburgUSA

Personalised recommendations