Advertisement

Psychological Research

, Volume 69, Issue 5–6, pp 338–351 | Cite as

Measuring unconscious knowledge: distinguishing structural knowledge and judgment knowledge

  • Zoltán DienesEmail author
  • Ryan Scott
Original Article

Abstract

This paper investigates the dissociation between conscious and unconscious knowledge in an implicit learning paradigm. Two experiments employing the artificial grammar learning task explored the acquisition of unconscious and conscious knowledge of structure (structural knowledge). Structural knowledge was contrasted to knowledge of whether an item has that structure (judgment knowledge). For both structural and judgment knowledge, conscious awareness was assessed using subjective measures. It was found that unconscious structural knowledge could lead to both conscious and unconscious judgment knowledge. When structural knowledge was unconscious, there was no tendency for judgment knowledge to become more conscious over time. Furthermore, conscious rather than unconscious structural knowledge produced more consistent errors in judgments, was facilitated by instructions to search for rules, and after such instructions was harmed by a secondary task. The dissociations validate the use of these subjective measures of conscious awareness.

Keywords

Structural Knowledge Secondary Task Confidence Rating Implicit Learning Artificial Grammar Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allwood, C. M., Granhag, P. A., & Johansson, H. (2000). Realism in confidence judgements of performance based on implicit learning. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 12, 165–188.Google Scholar
  2. Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  3. Block, N. (2001). Paradox and cross purposes in recent work on consciousness. Cognition, 79, 197–219.Google Scholar
  4. Boucher, L., & Dienes, Z. (2003). Two ways of learning associations. Cognitive Science, 27, 807–842.Google Scholar
  5. Chan, C. (1992). Implicit cognitive processes: Theoretical issues and applications in computer systems design. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  6. Channon, S., Shanks, D., Johnstone, T., Vakili, K., Chin, J., & Sinclair, E. (2002). Is implicit learning spared in amnesia? Rule abstraction and item familiarity in artificial grammar learning. Neuropsychologia, 40, 2185–2197.Google Scholar
  7. Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the process dissociation procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 343–350.Google Scholar
  8. Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2003). Temporal effects in sequence learning. In L. Jiménez (Ed.), Attention and implicit learning (pp. 181–213). Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  9. Dienes, Z. (2004). Assumptions of subjective measures of unconscious mental states: Higher order thoughts and bias. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11, 25–45.Google Scholar
  10. Dienes, Z., & Altmann, G. (1997). Transfer of implicit knowledge across domains? How implicit and how abstract? In D. Berry (Ed.), How implicit is implicit learning? (pp. 107–123). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dienes Z., & Berry, D. (1997). Implicit synthesis. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 68–72.Google Scholar
  12. Dienes, Z., Longuet-Higgins, H. C. (2004). Can musical transformations be implicitly learned? Cognitive Science, 28, 531–558.Google Scholar
  13. Dienes, Z., & Perner, J. (1999). A theory of implicit and explicit knowledge. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 22, 735–755.Google Scholar
  14. Dienes, Z., & Perner, J. (2003). Unifying consciousness with explicit knowledge. In A. Cleeremans (Ed.), The unity of consciousness: Binding, integration, and dissociation (pp. 214–232). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dienes, Z., & Perner, J. (2004). Assumptions of a subjective measure of consciousness: Three mappings. In R. Gennaro (Ed.), Higher order theories of consciousness (pp. 173–199). Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  16. Dienes, Z., Broadbent, D. E., & Berry, D. C. (1991). Implicit and explicit knowledge bases in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 17, 875–882.Google Scholar
  17. Dienes, Z., Altmann, G., Kwan, L., & Goode, A. (1995). Unconscious knowledge of artificial grammars is applied strategically. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 1322–1338.Google Scholar
  18. Dienes, Z., Kurz, A., Bernhaupt, R., & Perner, J. (1997). Application of implicit knowledge: Deterministic or probabilistic? Psychologica Belgica, 37, 89–112.Google Scholar
  19. Dulany, D. E., Carlson, R. A., & Dewey, G. I. (1984). A case of syntactical learning and judgement: How conscious and how abstract? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 541–555.Google Scholar
  20. Frensch, P. A., Wenke, D., & Ruenger, D. (1999). A secondary tone-counting task suppresses expression of knowledge in the serial reaction task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 25, 260–274.Google Scholar
  21. Gardiner, J. M., & Parkin, A. J. (1990). Attention and recollective experience in recognition memory. Memory & Cognition, 18, 579–583.Google Scholar
  22. Gardiner, J. M., Ramponi, C., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (1998). Experiences of remembering, knowing, and guessing. Consciousness and Cognition, 7, 1–26.Google Scholar
  23. Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jacoby, L. L., & Hay, J. F. (1998). Age-related deficits in memory: Theory and application. In M. A. Conway (Ed.), Theories of memory II (pp. 111–134). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Jiménez, L (Ed.). (2003). Attention and implicit learning. Amsterdam: BenjaminsGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelley, C. M., & Jacoby, L. L. (2000). Recollection and familiarity: Process-dissociation. In E. Tulving, F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of memory (pp. 215–228). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kinder, A., Shanks, D. R., Cock, J., & Tunney, R. J. (2003). Analytic and nonanalytic strategies and the explicit/implicit distinction in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 551–565.Google Scholar
  28. Lau, K. K. (2002). Metacognitive measures of implicit learning in a dynamic control task. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  29. Mathews, R. C. (1997). Is research painting a biased picture of implicit learning? The danger of methodological purity in scientific debate. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 38–42.Google Scholar
  30. Mathews, R. C., Buss, R. R., Stanley, W. B., Blanchard-Fields, F., Cho, J. R., & Druhan, B. (1989). The role of implicit and explicit processes in learning from examples: A synergistic effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,15, 1083–1100.Google Scholar
  31. Pacini, R., & Epstein, S. (1999). The relation of rational and experiential information processing styles to personality, basic beliefs, and the ratio-bias phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 972–987.Google Scholar
  32. Parkin, A. J., Reid, T. K., & Russo, R. (1990). On the differential nature of implicit and explicit memory. Memory & Cognition, 18, 507–514.Google Scholar
  33. Perruchet, P., & Pacteau, C. (1990). Synthetic grammar learning: Implicit rule abstraction or explicit fragmentary knowledge? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 264–275.Google Scholar
  34. Perruchet, P., Vinter, A., & Gallego, J. (1997). Implicit learning shapes new conscious percepts and representations. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 43–48.Google Scholar
  35. Reber, A. S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 6, 855–863.Google Scholar
  36. Reber, A. S. (1969). Transfer of syntactic structures in synthetic languages. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 115–119.Google Scholar
  37. Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tactic knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,118, 219–235.Google Scholar
  38. Reber, A. S., & Allen, R. (1978). Analogic and abstraction strategies in synthetic grammar learning: a functionalist interpretation. Cognition,6, 189–221.Google Scholar
  39. Reber, A. S., Kassin, S.M., Lewis, S., & Cantor, G. (1980). On the relationship between implicit and explicit modes in the learning of a complex rule structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 6, 492–502.Google Scholar
  40. Redington, M., Friend, M., & Chater, N. (1996). Confidence judgements, performance, and practice, in artificial grammar learning. In G. W. Cottrell (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 649–654). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Roberts, P. L., & MacLeod, C. (1995). Representational consequences of two modes of learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 296–319.Google Scholar
  42. Rosenthal, D. M. (1986). Two concepts of consciousness. Philosophical Studies, 49, 329–359.Google Scholar
  43. Rosenthal, D. M. (2005). Consciousness and mind. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  44. Rotello, C. M., Macmillan, N. A., & Reeder, J. A. (2004). Sum-difference theory of remembering and knowing: A two-dimensional signal-detection model. Psychological Review, 111, 588–616.Google Scholar
  45. Shanks, D. R. (2003). Attention and awareness in “implicit” sequence learning. In L. Jiménez (Ed.), Attention and implicit learning (pp. 11–42). Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  46. Tunney, R. J. (in press). Sources of confidence judgments in implicit cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.Google Scholar
  47. Tunney, R. J., & Altmann, G. T. M. (2001). Two modes of transfer in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 27, 1322–1333.Google Scholar
  48. Tunney, R. J., & Shanks, D. R. (2003). Subjective measures of awareness and implicit cognition. Memory and Cognition, 31, 1060–1071.Google Scholar
  49. Tymann, P., & Dienes, Z. (2004). Biased metacognitive measurement of implicit knowledge. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  50. Waldron, E. M., & Ashby, F. G. (2001). The effects of concurrent task interference on category learning: Evidence for multiple category learning systems. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 168–176.Google Scholar
  51. Whittlesea, B. W. A., & LeBoe, J. P. (2000). The heuristic basis of remembering and classification: Fluency, generation, and resemblance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 84–106.Google Scholar
  52. Wilkinson, L., & Shanks, D. R. (2004). Intentional control and implicit sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 354–369.Google Scholar
  53. Ziori, E., Dienes, Z. (in press). Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge of concepts. Mind & Society.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations