Advertisement

Psychological Research

, Volume 68, Issue 4, pp 252–270 | Cite as

Rhythmic movement is attracted more strongly to auditory than to visual rhythms

  • Bruno H. ReppEmail author
  • Amandine Penel
Original Article

Abstract

People often move in synchrony with auditory rhythms (e.g., music), whereas synchronization of movement with purely visual rhythms is rare. In two experiments, this apparent attraction of movement to auditory rhythms was investigated by requiring participants to tap their index finger in synchrony with an isochronous auditory (tone) or visual (flashing light) target sequence while a distractor sequence was presented in the other modality at one of various phase relationships. The obtained asynchronies and their variability showed that auditory distractors strongly attracted participants' taps, whereas visual distractors had much weaker effects, if any. This asymmetry held regardless of the spatial congruence or relative salience of the stimuli in the two modalities. When different irregular timing patterns were imposed on target and distractor sequences, participants' taps tended to track the timing pattern of auditory distractor sequences when they were approximately in phase with visual target sequences, but not the reverse. These results confirm that rhythmic movement is more strongly attracted to auditory than to visual rhythms. To the extent that this is an innate proclivity, it may have been an important factor in the evolution of music.

Keywords

Auditory Modality Auditory Target Distractor Effect Visual Distractors Auditory Distractors 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by NIH grant MH-51230 awarded to the first author, and by a Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory post-doctoral fellowship awarded to the second author. Thanks are due to Helen Sayward and Susan Holleran for help with data analysis, and to Alex Aksentijevic, Peter Keller, and Ani Patel for helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.

References

  1. Aschersleben, G. (2002). Temporal control of movements in sensorimotor synchronization. Brain and Cognition, 48, 66–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartlett, N. R., & Bartlett, S. C. (1959). Synchronization of a motor response with an anticipated sensory event. Psychological Review, 66, 203–218.Google Scholar
  3. Bertelson, P., & Aschersleben, G. (1998). Automatic visual bias of perceived auditory location. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 482–489.Google Scholar
  4. Brass, M., Bekkering, H., & Prinz, W. (2001). Movement observation affects movement execution in a simple response task. Acta Psychologica, 106, 3–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, Y., Repp, B. H., & Patel, A. D. (2002). Spectral decomposition of variability in synchronization and continuation tapping: Comparisons between auditory and visual pacing and feedback conditions. Human Movement Science, 21, 515–532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Condon, W. S., & Sander, L. W. (1974). Neonate movement is synchronized with adult speech: Interactional participation and language acquisition. Science, 183, 99–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Drake, C. (1997). Motor and perceptually preferred synchronisation by children and adults: Binary and ternary ratios. Polish Quarterly of Developmental Psychology, 3, 43–61.Google Scholar
  8. Drake, C., Jones, M. R., & Baruch, C. (2000). The development of rhythmic attending in auditory sequences: attunement, referent period, focal attending. Cognition, 77, 251–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Driver, J., & Spence, C. (2000). Multisensory perception: Beyond modularity and convergence. Current Biology, 10, R731–R735.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fendrich, R., & Corballis, P. M. (2001). The temporal cross-capture of audition and vision. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 719–725.Google Scholar
  11. Fraisse, P. (1948). Rythmes auditifs et rythmes visuels. [Visual and auditory rhythms.] L'Année Psychologique, 49, 21–41.Google Scholar
  12. Fraisse, P., Pichon, P., & Clairouin, G. (1949). Les aptitudes rythmiques: Etude comparée des oligophrènes et des enfants normaux. [Rhythmical aptitudes: A comparative study of mentally retarded and normal children.] Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique, 42, 309–330.Google Scholar
  13. Gault, R. H., & Goodfellow, L. D. (1938). An empirical comparison of audition, vision, and touch in the discrimination of temporal patterns and ability to reproduce them. Journal of General Psychology, 18, 41–47.Google Scholar
  14. Glenberg, A., & Jona, M. (1991). Temporal coding in rhythm tasks revealed by modality effects. Memory & Cognition, 19, 514–522.Google Scholar
  15. Glenberg, A., Mann, S., Altman, L., Forman, T., & Procise, S. (1989). Modality effects in the coding and reproduction of rhythms. Memory & Cognition, 17, 373–383.Google Scholar
  16. Goldstone, S., Boardman, W. K., & Lhamon, W. T. (1959). Intersensory comparisons of temporal judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57, 243–248.Google Scholar
  17. Goodfellow, L. D. (1934). An empirical comparison of audition, vision, and touch in the discrimination of short intervals of time. American Journal of Psychology, 46, 243–258.Google Scholar
  18. Grondin, S. (1993). Duration discrimination of empty and filled intervals marked by auditory and visual signals. Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 383–394.Google Scholar
  19. Grondin, S., & Rousseau, R. (1991). Judging the relative duration of multimodal short empty time intervals. Perception & Psychophysics, 49, 245–256.Google Scholar
  20. Grondin, S., Meilleur-Wells, G., Ouellette, C., & Macar, F. (1998). Sensory effects on judgments of short time-intervals. Psychological Research, 61, 261–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Grondin, S., Ouellet, B., & Roussel, M.-E. (2001). About optimal timing and stability of Weber fraction for duration discrimination. Acoustical Science and Technology, 22, 370–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haken, H., Kelso, J. A. S., & Bunz, H. (1985). A theoretical model of phase transitions in human hand movements. Biological Cybernetics, 51, 347–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hargreaves, D. J. (1986). The developmental psychology of music. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Harrington, L. K., & Peck, C. K. (1998). Spatial disparity affects visual-auditory interactions in human sensorimotor processing. Experimental Brain Research, 122, 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kelso, J. A. S. (1995). Dynamic patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kelso, J. A. S., DelColle, J. D., & Schöner, G. (1990). Action-perception as a pattern formation process. In M. Jeannerod (Ed.), Attention and performance XIII (pp. 138–169). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Kolers, P. A., & Brewster, J. M. (1985). Rhythms and responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 11, 150–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lewald, J., & Guski, R. (2003). Cross-modal perceptual integration of spatially and temporally disparate auditory and visual stimuli. Cognitive Brain Research, 16, 468–478.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewald, J., Ehrenstein, W. H., & Guski, R. (2001). Spatio-temporal constraints for auditory-visual integration. Behavioral Brain Research, 121, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Michon, J. A. (1967). Timing in temporal tracking. Assen, NL: Van GorcumGoogle Scholar
  31. Morein-Zamir, S., Soto-Faraco, S., & Kingstone, A. (2003). Auditory capture of vision: Examining temporal ventriloquism. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 154–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Peryer, G., Sloboda, & Nte, S. (2002). How is the synchronisation of tapping to a visual isochronous pulse affected by an interfering auditory pulse? In C. Stevens, D. Burnham, G. McPherson, E. Schubert, & J. Renwick (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Sydney, 2002 (pp. 783–786). Adelaide, Australia: Causal Productions (CD-ROM).Google Scholar
  33. Pressing, J. (1998). Error correction processes in temporal pattern production. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 42, 63–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Rainbow, E. L., & Owen, D. (1979). A progress report on a three year investigation of the rhythmic ability of pre-school aged children. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 59, 84–86.Google Scholar
  35. Recanzone, G. H. (2003). Auditory influences on visual temporal rate perception. Journal of Neurophysiology, 89, 1078–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Repp, B. H. (1997). Acoustics, perception, and production of legato articulation on a computer-controlled grand piano. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 102, 1878–1890CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Repp, B. H. (2000). Compensation for subliminal timing perturbations in perceptual-motor synchronization. Psychological Research, 63, 106–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Repp, B. H. (2001). Phase correction, phase resetting, and phase shifts after subliminal timing perturbations in sensorimotor synchronization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 600–621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Repp, B. H. (2002a). Automaticity and voluntary control of phase correction following event onset shifts in sensorimotor synchronization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 410–430.Google Scholar
  40. Repp, B. H. (2002b). The embodiment of musical structure: Effects of musical context on sensorimotor synchronization with complex timing patterns. In W. Prinz & B. Hommel (Eds.), Common mechanisms in perception and action: Attention and Performance XIX (pp. 245–265). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Repp, B. H. (2002c). Perception of timing is more context sensitive than sensorimotor synchronization. Perception & Psychophysics, 64, 703–716.Google Scholar
  42. Repp, B. H. (2003). Phase attraction in sensorimotor synchronization with auditory sequences: Effects of single and periodic distractors on synchronization accuracy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 290–309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Repp, B. H. (in press). Rate limits in sensorimotor synchronization with auditory and visual sequences: The synchronization threshold and the benefits and costs of interval subdivision. Journal of Motor Behavior.Google Scholar
  44. Repp, B. H., & Penel, A. (2002). Auditory dominance in temporal processing: New evidence from synchronization with simultaneous visual and auditory sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 1085–1099.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Rousseau, R., Poirier, J., & Lemyre, L. (1983). Duration discrimination of empty time intervals marked by intermodal pulses. Perception & Psychophysics, 34, 541–548.Google Scholar
  46. Semjen, A., & Ivry, R. B. (2001). The coupled oscillator model of between-hand coordination in alternate-hand tapping: A reappraisal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 251–265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Shams, L., Kamitani, Y., & Shimojo, S. (2000). What you see is what you hear. Nature, 408, 788.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Slutsky, D. A., & Recanzone, G. H. (2001). Temporal and spatial dependency of the ventriloquism effect. NeuroReport, 12, 7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Spence, C., Shore, D. I., & Klein, R. M. (2001). Multisensory prior entry. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 799–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Spence, C., Baddeley, R., Zampini, M., James, R., & Shore, D. I. (2003). Multisensory temporal order judgments: When two locations are better than one. Perception & Psychophysics, 65, 318–328.Google Scholar
  51. Stein, B. E. (1998). Neural mechanisms for synthesizing sensory information and producing adaptive behaviors. Experimental Brain Research, 123, 124–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Trevarthen, C. (1999–2000). Musicality and the intrinsic motive pulse: evidence from human psychobiology and infant communication. Musicae Scientiae (special issue), 155–215.Google Scholar
  53. Tuller, B., & Kelso, J. A. S. (1989). Environmentally-specified patterns of movement coordination in normal and split-brain subjects. Experimental Brain Research, 75, 306–316.Google Scholar
  54. Walker, J. T., & Scott, K. J. (1981). Auditory-visual conflicts in the perceived duration of lights, tones, and gaps. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 1327–1339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Yamanishi, Y., Kawato, M., & Suzuki, R. (1980). Two coupled oscillators as a model for the coordinated finger tapping by both hands. Biological Cybernetics, 37, 219–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Haskins LaboratoriesNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryCold Spring HarborUSA

Personalised recommendations