Myosin, microtubules, and microfilaments: co-operation between cytoskeletal components during cambial cell division and secondary vascular differentiation in trees
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The immunolocalisation of unconventional myosin VIII ('myosin') in the cells of the secondary vascular tissues of angiosperm (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx. and Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and gymnosperm (Pinus pinea L.) trees is described for the first time and related to other cytoskeletal elements, as well as to callose. Both myosin and callose are located at the cell plate in dividing cambial cells, whereas actin microfilaments are found alongside the cell plate; actin and tubulin are both associated with the phragmoplast. Myosin and callose also localise to the plasmodesmata-rich pit fields in the walls of living cells, which are particularly abundant within the common walls between ray cells and between ray cells and axial parenchyma cells in the phloem and xylem. In those xylem ray cells that contact developing vessel elements and tracheids, myosin, tubulin, actin and callose are localised at the periphery of developing contact and cross-field pits; the respective antibodies also highlight the bordered pits between vessels and between tracheids. The aperture of the bordered pits, whose diameter diminishes as the over-arching border of these pits develops, also houses myosin, actin and tubulin. Myosin, actin and callose are also found together around the sieve pores of sieve elements and sieve cells. We suggest that an acto-myosin contractile system (a 'plant muscle') is present at the cell plate, the sieve pores, the plasmodesmata within the walls of long-lived parenchyma cells, and at the apertures of bordered pits during their development.
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