Kinase activity-dependent stability of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase of Lotus japonicus
Accumulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) in root cell nucleus depends on its kinase activity but not on nuclear symbiotic components crucial for nodulation.
Plant calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a key regulator of symbioses with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as it decodes symbiotic calcium signals induced by microsymbionts. CCaMK is expressed mainly in root cells and localizes to the nucleus, where microsymbiont-triggered calcium oscillations occur. The molecular mechanisms that control CCaMK localization are unknown. Here, we analyzed the expression and subcellular localization of mutated CCaMK in the roots of Lotus japonicus and found a clear relation between CCaMK kinase activity and its stability. Kinase-defective CCaMK variants showed lower protein levels than the variants with kinase activity. The levels of transcripts driven by the CaMV 35S promoter were similar among the variants, indicating that stability of CCaMK is regulated post-translationally. We also demonstrated that CCaMK localized to the root cell nucleus in several symbiotic mutants, including cyclops, an interaction partner and phosphorylation target of CCaMK. Our results suggest that kinase activity of CCaMK is required not only for the activation of downstream symbiotic components but also for its stability in root cells.
KeywordsCalcium signaling Nuclear localization Phosphorylation Plant and microbe interactions Protein stability
Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase
Red fluorescent protein
This work was financially supported by the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization of Japan.
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