, Volume 250, Issue 5, pp 1621–1635 | Cite as

Cassava AGPase genes and their encoded proteins are different from those of other plants

  • Ming-You Dong
  • Xian-Wei Fan
  • You-Zhi LiEmail author
Original Article


Main conclusion

Cassava AGPase and AGPase genes have some unique characteristics.


ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a rate-limiting enzyme for starch synthesis. In this study, cassava AGPase genes (MeAGP) were analyzed based on six cultivars and one wild species. A total of seven MeAGPs was identified, including four encoding AGPase large subunits (MeAGPLs 1, 2, 3 and 4) and three encoding AGPase small subunits (MeAGPSs 1, 2 and 3). The copy number of MeAGPs varied in cassava germplasm materials. There were 14 introns for MeAGPLs 1, 2 and 3, 13 introns for MeAGPL4, and 8 introns for other three MeAGPSs. Multiple conservative amino acid sequence motifs were found in the MeAGPs. There were differences in amino acids at binding sites of substrates and regulators among different MeAGP subunits and between MeAGPs and a potato AGPase small subunit (1YP2:B). MeAGPs were all located in chloroplasts. MeAGP expression was not only associated with gene copy number and types/combinations, regions and levels of the DNA methylation but was also affected by environmental factors with the involvement of various transcription factors in multiple regulation networks and in various cis-elements in the gene promoter regions. The MeAGP activity also changed with environmental conditions and had potential differences among the subunits. Taken together, MeAGPs differ in number from those of Arabidopsis, potato, maize, banana, sweet potato, and tomato.


Binding sites Enzymes Evolution Genome Starch Transcriptome Subcellular localization 



ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase


AGP large subunit


AGP small subunit


Cassava cultivar Arg7


Arabidopsis AGPase


Bottom leaves sampled before/3 h after/24 h after PEG treatment


Days after planting


Fully expanded leaves sampled before/3 h after PEG treatment


Folded leaves sampled before/24 h after PEG treatment


Cassava cultivar Fuxuan 01


Gene Expression Omnibus


Cassava cv KU50


Cassava AGPase


Nucleotidyl transferase protein


Cassava cv 9I


Rice AGPase


Polyethylene glycol


Roots sampled before/3 h after/24 h after PEG treatment


Cassava cv South China 124


Cassava cv 16P


RNA-seq read archive


Wild cassava species



This work is supported by the Innovation Project of Guangxi Graduate Education (YCBZ2018020) and the funding (SKLCUSA-a201804) from State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources. We are grateful to Professor Wang Wen-Quan of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences for providing cassava stem cuttings.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We state no conflict of interest with others.

Ethical statement

Our work complies with the Ethical Rules applicable to this journal.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Life Science and TechnologyGuangxi UniversityNanningChina

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