Two types of mutations in the HEUKCHEEM gene functioning in cucumber spine color development can be used as signatures for cucumber domestication
- 79 Downloads
The HEUKCHEEM gene plays an important role in spine color formation. A white spine occurs due to two mutations in HEUKCHEEM and is closely related to the regional distribution of these mutants.
Mapping analysis revealed that the HEUKCHEEM gene is co-segregated with the B locus in the regulation of black spine color development in cucumber fruit. HEUKCHEEM induced the expression of the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, leading to the accumulation of anthocyanins in black spines. The transiently over-expressed HEUKCHEEM in cucumber and tobacco plants enhanced the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes, leading to anthocyanin accumulation. However, two mutations—insertion of the 6994 bp mutator-like transposable element (MULE) sequence into the second intron and one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of C to T in the second exon of HEUKCHEEM—were identified in white spines, leading to no accumulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related gene transcripts and anthocyanins. Furthermore, association analysis using 104 cucumber accessions with different geographical origins revealed that the types of mutations in HEUKCHEEM are strongly linked to geographical origins. The MULE insertion is found extensively in cucumbers with white spines in East Asia and Australia. However, cucumbers with white spines in other areas could be significantly influenced by a single SNP mutation. Our results provide fundamental information on spine color development in cucumber fruits and spine color-based cucumber breeding programs.
KeywordsAnthocyanin B locus Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) HEUKCHEEM R2R3-MYB Spine color
(Derived) Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences
Insertions and deletions
Mutator-like transposable element
UDP-glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase
This work was supported by grants from the Bio-industry Technology Development Program (Grant nos. 117043-3, 316087-4) of iPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture and Forestry) and the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (Plant Molecular Breeding Center) (Grant no. PJ01329601) of the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- FAOSTAT (2018) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Crop Production Data. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
- Liu S, Gu X, Miao H, Wang Y, Wng Y, Wehner T, Zhang S (2014) Molecular mapping and candidate gene analysis of black fruit spine gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Sci Agric Sin 47:122–132Google Scholar
- Lv J, Qi JJ, Shi QX et al (2012) Genetic diversity and population structure of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). PLoS One 7:19Google Scholar
- Medina-Puche L, Molina-Hidalgo FJ, Boersma M, Schuurink RC, Lopez-Vidriero I, Solano R, Franco-Zorrilla JM, Caballero JL, Blanco-Portales R, Munoz-Blanco J (2015) An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates eugenol production in ripe strawberry fruit receptacles. Plant Physiol 168:598–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nakata M, Mitsuda N, Herde M, Koo AJK, Moreno JE, Suzuki K, Howe GA, Ohme-Takagi M (2013) A bHLH-Type transcription factor, ABA-inducible bHLH-type transcription factor/JA-associated MYC2-LIKE1, acts as a repressor to negatively regulate jasmonate signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 25:1641–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pierce LK, Wehner TC (1990) Review of genes and linkage groups in Cucumber. HortScience 25:605–615Google Scholar
- Pitchaimuthu M, Dutta OP, Swamy KRM, Souravi K (2012) Mode of inheritance of bitterness and spine colour in cucumber fruits (Cucumis sativus L.). In: Sari N, Solmaz I, Aras V (eds) Cucurbitaceae 2012. Proceedings of the 10th EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Antalya, Turkey, 15–18 October 2012, pp 70–73Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2011) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
- Shanmugasundarum S, Williams PH, Peterson CE (1971) A cotyledon marker gene in cucumbers. HortScience 6:213–214Google Scholar
- Strong WJ (1931) Breeding experiments with the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Sci Agr 11:333–346Google Scholar
- Tkachenko NN (1935) Preliminary results of a genetic investigation of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Appl Plant Breed 9:311–356Google Scholar
- Wang G, Qin Z, Zhou X, Zhao C (2007) Genetic analysis and SSR markers of tuberculate trait in Cucumis sativus. Chin Bull Bot 24:168–172Google Scholar
- Wang X, Bao K, Reddy UK, Bai Y, Hammar SA, Jiao C, Wehner TC, Ramirez-Madera AO, Weng Y, Grumet R, Fei Z (2018) The USDA cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) collection: genetic diversity, population structure, genome-wide association studies and core collection development. Hortic Res 5:64CrossRefGoogle Scholar