Advertisement

Planta

pp 1–12 | Cite as

Morphological and molecular changes on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) introgression in Asiatic carrot (Daucus carota L.)

  • Pritam KaliaEmail author
  • Manisha Mangal
  • Shrawan SinghEmail author
  • Chetna Chugh
  • Sheshnath Mishra
  • Shivpratap Chaudhary
Original Article

Abstract

Main conclusion

‘Petaloid’ cytoplasmic male sterility is commonly used as a stable genetic mechanism in carrot hybrid breeding. Its introgression in tropical carrot showed morphometric changes and molecular markers were identified for detection at early stage.

Abstract

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the only genetic mechanism in carrot for commercial exploitation of heterosis and production of low cost affordable hybrid seeds. The ‘petaloid’ CMS system is stable and commonly used in hybrid breeding in temperate carrot but there is no information available on existence of natural CMS system in tropical Asiatic carrot. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate morphometric traits and organizational features of cytoplasmic atp9 gene sequences in newly converted CMS lines (BC4–7) of tropical carrot. The CMS lines had root traits at par with fertile counterparts while floral traits had variation. Petal colour and length, petaloids colour and shape and style length showed differences among the CMS lines and with their maintainers. Molecular markers are effective to establish male sterility at genetic level, for this, six fixed and stable CMS lines were screened with seven novel primer combinations. Out of which five pairs produced clearly distinguishable bands in CMS lines and their fertile counterparts. The study confirmed that the region between 3′ end of atp9-1/atp9-3 gene and 5′ end of region of homology to Arabidopsis thaliana mtDNA is ideal for developing the trait specific markers. These new CMS lines have potential to use in hybrid development and molecular markers will be useful to confirm male sterility to rogue out fertile plants.

Keywords

atp9 gene Carrot Cytoplasmic male sterility Petaloid cytoplasm Male fertility 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported under the ICAR funded Consortium Research project on Molecular breeding of Carrot (CRPMB-12-143-G (TG-3122). Authors acknowledge the Head, Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR-IARI, for experimental facilities.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest among the authors.

Supplementary material

425_2019_3185_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1258 kb)

References

  1. Bach IC, Oleason A, Simon PW (2002) PCR-based markers to differentiate the mitochondrial genomes of petaloid and male fertile carrot (Daucus carota L.). Euphytica 127:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bentley KE, Mandel JR, McCauley DE (2010) Paternal leakage and heteroplasmy of mitochondrial genomes in Silene vulgaris: evidence from experimental crosses. Genetics 185:961–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borner T, Linke B, Nothnagel T, Scheike R, Schulz B, Steinborn R, Brennicke A, Stein M, Wricke G (1995) Inheritance of nuclear and cytoplasmic factors affecting male sterility in Daucus carota. In: Kück U, Wricke G (eds) Genetic mechanisms for hybrid breeding. Blackwell Wissenschafts, Berlin, pp 111–122Google Scholar
  4. Bowman BJ, Dschida WJ, Harrls T, Bowman EJ (1989) The vacuolar ATPase of Neurospora crassa contains F1-like structure. J Biol Chem 264:15606–15612Google Scholar
  5. Budar F, Pelletier G (2001) Male sterility in plants: occurrence, determinism, significance and use. C R Acad Sci III 324:543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlsson J, Leino M, Sohlberg J, Sundström JF, Glimelius K (2008) Mitochondrial regulation of flower development. Mitochondrion 8:74–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cho Y, Mower JP, Qiu YL, Palmer JD (2004) Mitochondrial substitution rates are extraordinarily elevated and variable in a genus of flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:17741–17746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eisa HM, Wallace DH (1969) Morphological and anatomical aspects of petaloidy in the carrot (Daucus carota L.). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 94:545–548Google Scholar
  9. FAOSTAT (2017) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Accessed 13 March 2019
  10. Hanson MR, Bentolila S (2004) Interactions of mitochondrial and nuclear genes that affect male gametophyte development. Plant Cell 16:S154–S169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iorizzo M, Senalik D, Szklarczyk M, Grzebelus D, Spooner D, Simon PW (2012) De novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequencing of whole genomic DnA provides first evidence of DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome. BMC Plant Biol 12:61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kitagawa J, Posluszny U, Gerrath JM, Wolyn DJ (1994) Developmental and morphological analyses of homeotic cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile carrot flowers. Sex Plant Reprod 7:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Linke B, Nothnagel T, Börner T (1999) Morphological characterization of modified flower morphology of three novel alloplasmic male sterile carrot sources. Plant Breed 118:543–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mandel JR, Mcassey EV, Roland KM, Mccauley DE (2012) Mitochondrial gene diversity associated with the atp9 stop codon in natural populations of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota). J Hered 103(3):418–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mower JP, Touzet P, Gummow JS, Delph LF, Palmer JD (2007) Extensive variation in synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of seed plants. BMC Evol Biol 7:135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murray MG, Thomson WF (1980) Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acid Res 8:4321–4325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. NHB Database (2017) (2017) National Horticulture Database. National Horticulture Board, Government of India, GurugaonGoogle Scholar
  18. Nothnagel T, Straka P, Linke B (2000) Male sterility in populations of Daucus and the development of alloplasmic male-sterile carrot lines. Plant Breed 119:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Palmer JD (1992) Mitochondrial DNA in plant systematic: applications and limitations. In: Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Doyle JJ (eds) Molecular systematic of plants. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 36–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pearl SA, Welch ME, McCauley DE (2009) Mitochondrial heteroplasmy and paternal leakage in natural populations of Silene vulgaris, a gynodioecious plant. Mol Biol Evol 26:537–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schnable PS, Wise RP (1998) The molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration. Trends Plant Sci 3:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Szklarczyk M, Oczkowski M, Augustyniak H, Borner T, Linke B, Michalik B (2000) Organisation and expression of mitochondrial atp9 genes from CMS and fertile carrots. Theor Appl Genet 100:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Szklarczyk M, Szymanski M, Wojcik-Jagła M, Simon PW, Weihe A, Borner T (2014) Mitochondrial atp9 genes from petaloid male-sterile and male-fertile carrots differ in their status of heteroplasmy, recombination involvement, post-transcriptional processing as well as accumulation of RNA and protein product. Theor Appl Genet 127:1689–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. The Gazette of India (2016) Notification 6th December, 2016. Controller of Publications, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  25. Wolfe KH, Li WH, Sharp PM (1987) Rates of nucleotide substitution vary greatly among plant mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:9054–9058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wolyn DJ, Chahal A (1998) Nuclear and cytoplasmic interactions for petaloid male-sterile accessions of wild carrot (Daucus carota L.). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:849–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pritam Kalia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manisha Mangal
    • 1
  • Shrawan Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chetna Chugh
    • 1
  • Sheshnath Mishra
    • 1
  • Shivpratap Chaudhary
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Vegetable ScienceICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations