Expression patterns of alpha-amylase and beta-amylase genes provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) to stress and postharvest processing treatments
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The alpha-amylase and beta-amylase genes have been identified from tea plants, and their bioinformatic characteristics and expression patterns provide a foundation for further studies to elucidate their biological functions.
Alpha-amylase (AMY)- and beta-amylase (BAM)-mediated starch degradation plays central roles in carbohydrate metabolism and participates extensively in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes, including growth, development and stress response. However, the AMY and BAM genes in tea plants (Camellia sinensis) are poorly understood, and the biological functions of these genes remain to be elucidated. In this study, three CsAMY and nine CsBAM genes from tea plants were identified based on genomic and transcriptomic database analyses, and the genes were subjected to comprehensive bioinformatic characterization. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CsAMY proteins could be clustered into three different subfamilies, and nine CsBAM proteins could be classified into four groups. Putative catalytically active proteins were identified based on multiple sequence alignments, and the tertiary structures of these proteins were analyzed. Cis-element analysis indicated that CsAMY and CsBAM were extensively involved in tea plant growth, development and stress response. In addition, the CsAMY and CsBAM genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and were regulated by stress treatments (e.g., ABA, cold, drought and salt stress), and the expression patterns of these genes were associated with the postharvest withering and rotation processes. Taken together, our results will enhance the understanding of the roles of the CsAMY and CsBAM gene families in the growth, development and stress response of tea plants and of the potential functions of these genes in determining tea quality during the postharvest processing of tea leaves.
KeywordsAlpha-amylase genes (AMY) Beta-amylase genes (BAM) Postharvest processing Stress response Tea plant
ABA response element
Anaerobic response element
Brassinazole resistant 1
Stress responsive element
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31600555, 31800587), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (2017J01616), the Major Project of Agricultural Science and Technology in Breeding of Tea Plant Variety in Zhejiang Province (2016C02053-4), the Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-19), the Construction of Plateau Discipline of Fujian Province (102/71201801101), and the Fujian Province “2011 Collaborative Innovation Center” Chinese Oolong Tea Industry Innovation Center (Cultivation) special project (J2015-75).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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