pp 1–9 | Cite as

Quantitative characteristics of pubescence in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are associated with photosynthetic parameters under conditions of normal and limited water supply

  • Tatyana A. PshenichnikovaEmail author
  • Alexey V. Doroshkov
  • Svetlana V. Osipova
  • Alexey V. Permyakov
  • Marina D. Permyakova
  • Vadim M. Efimov
  • Dmitry A. Afonnikov
Original Article


Main conclusion

Density and length of leaf pubescence are important factors of diversity in the response to water deficiency among wheat genotypes.

Many studies evidence an important protective value of leaf hairiness in plants, especially under the conditions of drought, thermal loads and increased solar radiation. However, the physiological and adaptive roles of such traits in cereals, including cultivated plants, have not been sufficiently studied to date. The aim of this work was to study the association of morphological characteristics of leaves with parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in wheat lines carrying a genetically different leaf hairiness. Isogenic and inter-varietal substitution wheat lines were used, carrying various combinations of dominant and recessive alleles of the known genes. A quantitative assessment of the pubescence was carried out in contrasting watering conditions to establish the physiological role of this trait in adaptation to drought. With the help of a portable system for studying the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, ten parameters of photosynthesis were studied, as well as morphological features of leaves and shoot biomass. It was found that gas exchange parameters are inversely proportional to the density and length of trichomes. In drought conditions, the trichome density increased and the length of trichomes decreased under the observed decrease in the level of gas exchange. A similar dependence was observed for the level of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Under optimal conditions, the poorly haired cultivars exhibited a higher biomass than the densely haired. However, under water deficiency they significantly reduced the biomass and showed a low value of the tolerance index.


Chlorophyll fluorescence Genes for leaf pubescence High-throughput phenotyping Introgressions Near-isogenic lines Photosynthesis 



Electron transport rate


Non-photochemical fluorescence quenching


Net CO2 assimilation rate


Stomatal conductance to water vapor


Water loss via transpiration


Water use efficiency as net photosynthesis/transpiration


Actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry



Development of the used wheat lines was supported by ICG project #0259-2018-0018. The lines belong to the collection “GenAgro” of Institute of Cytology and Genetics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia. All experiments were carried out on the experimental basis of the Baikal Analytical Center of Collective Use “Phytotron SIFIBR SB RAS”. The work was supported by RFBR-OFI project #17-29-08028.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

425_2018_3049_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (167 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 167 kb)
425_2018_3049_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (174 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 174 kb)
425_2018_3049_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (163 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 163 kb)


  1. Baldocchi DD, Verma SB, Rosenberg NJ, Blad BL, Garay A, Specht JE (1983) Leaf pubescence effects on the mass and energy exchange between soybean canopies and the atmosphere. Agron J 75:537–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boughalleb F, Hajlaoui H (2011) Physiological and anatomical changes induced by drought in two olive cultivars (cv. Zalmati and Chemlali). Acta Physiol Plant 33:53–65. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davydov VA (2007) Quantitative characteristics of stomatal apparatus in spring wheat plants of Saratovskaya 29 variety during sharp deficit of water. Sel’skokhozya’ctvennaya biologia (Agric biol) 5:90–93 (In Russian) Google Scholar
  4. Dobrovolskaya O, Pshenichnikova TA, Arbuzova VS, Lohwasser U, Röder MS, Börner A (2007) Molecular mapping of genes determining hairy leaf character in common wheat with respect to other species of the Triticeae. Euphytica 155(3):285–293. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Doroshkov AV, Pshenichnikova TA, Afonnikov DA (2011) Morphological and genetic characteristics of leaf hairiness in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as analyzed by computer-aided phenotyping. Russ J Genet 47:739–743. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doroshkov AV, Afonnikov DA, Dobrovolskaya OB, Pshenichnikova TA (2016) Interactions between leaf pubescence genes in bread wheat as assessed by high throughput phenotyping. Euphytica 207:491–500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehleringer J (1982) The influence of water stress and temperature on leaf pubescence development in Encelia farinosa. Am J Bot 69:670–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ehleringer J, Mooney HA (1978) Leaf hairs: effects on physiological activity and adaptive value to a desert shrub. Oeocologia 37:183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ehleringer J, Bjorkman O, Mooney HA (1976) Leaf pubescence: effect on absorptance and photosynthesis in a desert shrub. Science 192(4237):376–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Galmés J, Medrano H, Flexas J (2007) Photosynthesis and photoinhibition in response to drought in a pubescent (var. minor) and a glabrous (var. palaui) variety of Digitalis minor. Environ Exp Bot 60:105–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Genaev MA, Doroshkov AV, Pshenichnikova TA, Kolchanov NA, Afonnikov DA (2012) Extraction of quantitative characteristics describing wheat leaf pubescence with a novel image-processing technique. Planta 236(6):1943–1954. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gianoli E, Gonzáles-Teuber M (2007) Environmental heterogeneity and population differentiation in plasticity to drought in Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae). Evol Ecol 19:603–613. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamaoka N, Yasui H, Yamagata Y, Inoue Y, Furuya N, Araki T, Ueno O, Yoshimura A (2017) A hairy-leaf gene, BLANKET LEAF, of wild Oryza nivara increases photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice. Rice 10:20. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Hammer O, Harper DR (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):9Google Scholar
  15. Holland SM (2008) Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. Accessed 03 Oct 2017
  16. Ilyina LG (1989) Breeding of spring bread wheat on south-east. Saratov University, Saratov (In Russian) Google Scholar
  17. Johnson HB (1975) Plant pubescence: an ecological perspective. Bot Rev 41:233–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumakov VA (1985) Physiological foundation of the models of bread wheat. Agropromizdat, Moscow (In Russian) Google Scholar
  19. Lapochkina IF (2001) Genetic diversity of “Arsenal” collection and its use in wheat breeding. In: Proc intern appl sciences conference “Genetic Resources of Cultural Plants”, St. Petersburg, pp 133–135Google Scholar
  20. Liakopoulos G, Nikolopoulos D, Klouvatou A, Vekkos K-A, Manetas Y, Karabourniotis G (2006) The photoprotective role of epidermal anthocyanins and surface pubescence in young leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Ann Bot 98:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mamontova VN (1980) Breeding and seed production of bread wheat: selected works. Kolos, Moscow (In Russian) Google Scholar
  22. Morales F, Abadia A, Abadia J, Montserrat G, Gil-Pelegrin E (2002) Trichomes and photosynthetic pigment composition changes: responses of Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. and Quercus coccifera L. to Mediterranean stress conditions. Trees 16:504–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Picotte JJ, Rosenthal DM, Rhode J, Cruzan MB (2007) Plastic response to temporal variation in moisture availability: consequence for water use efficiency and plant performance. Oecologia 153:821–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schreuder MDJ, Brewer CA, Heine C (2001) Modelled influences of non-exchanging trichomes on leaf boundary layer and gas exchange. J Theor Biol 210:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schuepp PH (1993) Leaf boundary layers. New Phytol 125:477–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vavilov NI (1987) Theoretical basis of breeding (collected works). Nauka, Moskva (In Russian) Google Scholar
  27. Xu Zh, Zhou G (2008) Responses of leaf stomatal density to water status and its relationship with photosynthesis in a grass. J Exp Bot 59:3317–3325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhurbitzkiy ZI (1968) Theory and practice of vegetation method. Nauka, Moscow, p 260 (In Russian) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatyana A. Pshenichnikova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexey V. Doroshkov
    • 1
  • Svetlana V. Osipova
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alexey V. Permyakov
    • 2
  • Marina D. Permyakova
    • 2
  • Vadim M. Efimov
    • 1
  • Dmitry A. Afonnikov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RASNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry SB RASIrkutskRussia
  3. 3.Irkutsk State UniversityIrkutskRussia

Personalised recommendations