Effect of diflufenican on total carotenoid and phytoene production in carrot suspension-cultured cells
- 72 Downloads
Diflufenican increased 493-fold the level of phytoene. Diflufenican-induced inhibition of phytoene desaturase gene expression in carrot cells resulted in an increased production of phytoene.
This work analyzes the effect of diflufenican, an inhibitor of phytoene desaturase, on the gene expression profiles of the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids related with the production of these compounds in carrot cell cultures. The results showed that the presence of 10 µM diflufenican in the culture medium increased phytoene levels, which was 493-fold higher than in control cells after 7 days of treatment but did not alter cell growth in carrot cell cultures. The maximal production of phytoene was reached with 10 µM diflufenican after 7 days of incubation in the presence of light and with 30 g/L sucrose in the culture medium. Moreover, diflufenican decreased the expression of phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase genes at all the times studied. This diflufenican-induced inhibition of phytoene desaturase gene expression in carrot cell cultures resulted in an increased production of phytoene. Our results provide new insights into the action of diflufenican in carrot cell cultures, which could represent an alternative more sustainable and environmentally friendly system to produce phytoene than those currently used.
KeywordsCarotenoids Carrot suspension-cultured cells Diflufenican Phytoene
This work has been supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (no. BIO2017-82374-R) and Fundación Seneca-Agencia de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Región de Murcia (no. 19876/GERM/15).
- Boger P, Sandmann G (1998) Carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor herbicides—mode of action and resistance mechanisms. Pestic Outlook 9:29–35Google Scholar
- Dayan FE, Zaccaro MLM (2012) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a marker for herbicide mechanisms of action pesticide. Biochem Physiol 102:189–197Google Scholar
- Eliassen AH, Hendrickson SJ, Brinton LA, Buring JE, Campos H, Dai Q, Dorgan JF, Franke AA, Gao YT, Goodman MT, Helzlsouer KJ, Hoffman-Bolton J, Hultén K, Sesso HD, Sowell AL, Tamimi RM, Toniolo P, Wilkens LR, Winkvist A, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Zheng W, Hankinson SE (2012) Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 104:1905–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Engelmann NJ, Rogers RB, Rupassara SI, Garlick PJ, Lila MA, Erdman JW (2010) Production of [13C]-lycopene from high lycopene tomato cell suspension cultures. FASEB J 24:539–546Google Scholar
- Fatimah AMZ, Norazian MH, Rashidi O (2012) Identification of carotenoid composition in selected ‘ulam’ or traditional vegetables in Malaysia. Int Food Res J 19:527–530Google Scholar
- Ibrahim RK (1987) Regulation of synthesis of phenolic. In: Constabel F, Vasil IK (eds) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants. Academic Press Books, New York, pp 77–95Google Scholar
- Nicolle C, Simon G, Rock E, Amouroux P, Rémésy C (2004) Genetic variability influences carotenoid, vitamin, phenolic, and mineral content in white, yellow, purple, orange, and dark-orange carrot cultivars. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129:523–529Google Scholar
- Paetau I, Khachik F, Brown ED, Beecher GR, Kramer TR, Chittams J, Clevidence BA (1998) Chronic ingestion of lycopene-rich tomato juice or lycopene supplements significantly increases plasma concentrations of lycopene and related tomato carotenoids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 68:1187–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rakovic J (2014) Effects of the carotenoid inhibiting herbicide diflufenican on the photosynthesis of benthic algae. Thesis Dissertation. Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
- von Oppen-Bezalel L, Fishbein D, Havas F, Ben-Chitrit O, Khaiat A (2015) The photoprotective effects of a food supplement tomato powder rich in phytoene and phytofluene, the colorless carotenoids, a preliminary study. Glob Dermatol 2:178–182Google Scholar