, Volume 248, Issue 2, pp 393–407 | Cite as

Tissue accumulation patterns and concentrations of potassium, phosphorus, and carboxyfluorescein translocated from pine seed to the root

  • Thomas C. PesacretaEmail author
  • Karl H. Hasenstein
Original Article


Main conclusion

Potassium (K), phosphorous (P), and carboxyfluorescein (CF) accumulate in functionally distinct tissues within the pine seedling root cortex.

Seedlings of Pinus pinea translocate exogenous CF and endogenous K and P from the female gametophyte/cotyledons to the growing radicle. Following unloading in the root tip, these materials accumulate in characteristic spatial patterns. Transverse sections of root tips show high levels of P in a circular ring of several layers of inner cortical cells. K and CF are minimal in the high P tissue. In contrast, high levels of K and CF accumulate in outer cortical cells, and in the vascular cylinder. These patterns are a property of living tissue because they change after freeze–thaw treatment, which kills the cells and results in uniform distribution of K and P. K concentration can be reduced to undetectable levels by incubation of roots in 100 mM NaCl. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of root segments both reliably determine K and P concentrations.


ICP-OES Ion distribution Mineral distribution Pinus pinea Roots SEM/EDS 





Carboxyfluorescein diacetate


Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry


Root apical meristem


Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology DepartmentUniversity of LouisianaLafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Microscopy CenterUniversity of LouisianaLafayetteUSA

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