Stilbene accumulation and expression of stilbene biosynthesis pathway genes in wild grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr.
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We detected and quantified six stilbenes ( cis -piceid, t -piceid, t -ε-viniferin, cis -ε-viniferin, t -resveratrol, and t -δ-viniferin) in the leaves, petioles, berry skins, and seeds of wild-growing Vitis amurensis . The highest content of stilbenes and expression of stilbene biosynthesis genes were in the probes collected in the autumn and after ultraviolet elicitation.
Stilbenes, including the best-studied stilbene resveratrol, are known to display valuable bioactivities and protect plants against various pathogens. There is a lack of studies on stilbene quantities and spectrum combined with an analysis of the stilbene biosynthesis pathway gene expression in Vitaceae species, despite grapevine is an important source of stilbenes. This study presents an analysis of stilbene spectrum, stilbene content, and expression of stilbene biosynthesis genes both in natural conditions and after ultraviolet (UV-C) elicitation in the leaves, petioles, berry skins, and seeds of wild-growing Vitis amurensis, a highly stress-tolerant plant species. Using HPLC analysis, we detected six main stilbenes: cis-piceid (up to 0.257 mg/g of dry weight (DW) of plant material), t-piceid (up to 0.055 mg/g DW), t-ε-viniferin (up to 0.122 mg/g DW), cis-ε-viniferin (up to 0.031 mg/g DW), t-resveratrol (from 0.004 to 0.121 mg/g DW), and t-δ-viniferin (up to 0.019 mg/g DW). The stilbenes were actively synthesized in the leaves (total stilbenes 0.39 mg/g DW) and berry skins (total stilbenes 0.249 mg/g DW) of V. amurensis collected in the autumn. qRT-PCR revealed that the stilbene synthase (STS), resveratrol O-glucosyltransferase (Glu1), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO1) genes were actively expressed in the analyzed tissues. The resveratrol methyltransferase (Romt1) gene, which is known to catalyze biosynthesis of pterostilbene, was also expressed, but no pterostilbene has been detected in V. amurensis. The content of all detected stilbenes and expression of stilbene biosynthesis genes increased after UV-C treatment, except for Romt1. The data are important for understanding the stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine.
KeywordsGrapevine Piceid Resveratrol Stilbenes Stilbene synthase Viniferin Ultraviolet UV-C
Dry weight of plant material
Fresh weight of plant material
This work was supported by a Grant from the Russian Science Foundation (14-14-00366).
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