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Planta

, Volume 243, Issue 4, pp 1011–1022 | Cite as

Acylcarnitines participate in developmental processes associated to lipid metabolism in plants

  • Phuong-Jean Nguyen
  • Sonia Rippa
  • Yannick Rossez
  • Yolande PerrinEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Main conclusion

Plant acylcarnitines are present during anabolic processes of lipid metabolism. Their low contents relatively to the corresponding acyl-CoAs suggest that they are associated to specific pools of activated fatty acids.

The non-proteinaceous amino acid carnitine exists in plants either as a free form or esterified to fatty acids. To clarify the biological significance of acylcarnitines in plant lipid metabolism, we have analyzed their content in plant extracts using an optimized tandem mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography method. We have studied different developmental processes (post-germination, organogenesis, embryogenesis) targeted for their high requirement for lipid metabolism. The modulation of the acylcarnitine content was compared to that of the lipid composition and lipid biosynthetic gene expression level in the analyzed materials. Arabidopsis mutants were also studied based on their alteration in de novo fatty acid partitioning between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways of lipid biosynthesis. We show that acylcarnitines cannot specifically be associated to triacylglycerol catabolism but that they are also associated to anabolic pathways of lipid metabolism. They are present during membrane and storage lipid biosynthesis processes. A great divergence in the relative contents of acylcarnitines as compared to the corresponding acyl-CoAs suggests that acylcarnitines are associated to very specific process(es) of lipid metabolism. The nature of their involvement as the transport form of activated fatty acids or in connection with the management of acyl-CoA pools is discussed. Also, the occurrence of medium-chain entities suggests that acylcarnitines are associated with additional lipid processes such as protein acylation for instance. This work strengthens the understanding of the role of acylcarnitines in plant lipid metabolism, probably in the management of specific acyl-CoA pools.

Keywords

Acyl-CoA Arabidopsis Fatty acid transport Lipid trafficking Plant development Plant metabolism 

Abbreviations

ACP

Acyl carrier protein

CAT

Carnitine acetyltransferase

CPT

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase

FA

Fatty acid

FAT

Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase

FFA

Free fatty acid

KAS

3-Ketoacyl-ACP synthase

LACS

Long-chain acyl-CoA synthase

LPAAT

Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase

LPCAT

Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase

RF

Response factor

TAG

Triacylglycerol

WT

Wild type

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Dr. Laurent Gutierrez and Dr. Stéphanie Guénin from Université de Picardie Jules Verne (Amiens, France) for their assistance in RT-qPCR analyses and Franck Merlier from our group for his technical support in mass spectrometry analysis. We are grateful to Dr. Gustavo Bonaventure from Max Planck Institute (Jena, Germany) for kindly providing with the Arabidopsis mutant genotypes. We also thank a lot Dr. George Lomonossoff from John Innes Centre (Norwich, UK) for taking time to carefully read the manuscript. Finally, we appreciate the time and helpful comments from the reviewers. The work was supported by the French Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research.

Supplementary material

425_2016_2465_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (131 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 130 kb)
425_2016_2465_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (26 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 26 kb)
425_2016_2465_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (10 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 10 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phuong-Jean Nguyen
    • 1
  • Sonia Rippa
    • 1
  • Yannick Rossez
    • 1
  • Yolande Perrin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Génie Enzymatique et Cellulaire, FRE 3580 CNRS, Centre de recherche RoyallieuSorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de CompiègneCompiègne CedexFrance

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