Planta

, Volume 243, Issue 3, pp 699–717 | Cite as

Towards understanding peroxisomal phosphoregulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Original Article

Abstract

Main conclusion

This work identifies new protein phosphatases and phosphatase-related proteins targeting peroxisomes, and raises the question of a novel protein import pathway from ER to peroxisomes involving peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)

Abstract

Plant peroxisomes are essential for several processes, for example lipid metabolism, free radical detoxification, development, and stress-related functions. Although research on peroxisomes has been intensified, reversible phosphorylation as a control mechanism in peroxisomes is barely studied. Therefore, it is crucial to identify all peroxisomal proteins involved in phosphoregulation. We here started with protein phosphatases, and searched the Arabidopsis thaliana genome for phosphatase-related proteins with putative peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). Five potential peroxisomal candidates were detected, from which four were confirmed to target peroxisomes or have a functional PTS. The highly conserved Ser–Ser-Met> was validated for two protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family members (POL like phosphatases, PLL2 and PLL3) as a functional peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Full-length PLL2 and PLL3 fused with a reporter protein targeted peroxisomes in two plant expression systems. A putative protein phosphatase, purple acid phosphatase 7 (PAP7), was found to be dually targeted to ER and peroxisomes and experiments indicated a possible trafficking to peroxisomes via the ER depending on peroxisomal PTS1. In addition, a protein phosphatase 2A regulator (TIP41) was validated to harbor a functional PTS1 (Ser-Lys-Val>), but the full-length protein targeted cytosol and nucleus. Reverse genetics indicated a role for TIP41 in senescence signaling. Mass spectrometry of whole seedlings and isolated peroxisomes was employed, and identified new putative phosphorylated peroxisomal proteins. Previously, only one protein phosphatase, belonging to the phospho-protein phosphatase (PPP) family, was identified as a peroxisomal protein. The present work implies that members of two other main protein phosphatase families, i.e. PP2C and PAP, are also targeting peroxisomes.

Keywords

Peroxisomes POL like phosphatases (PLL2, PLL3) Protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) Protein phosphatases Peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) Purple acid phosphatase 7 Signaling β-Oxidation 

Abbreviations

CFP

Cyan fluorescent protein

2,4-DB

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

EYFP

Enhanced yellow fluorescent protein

gMDH

Glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase

IBA

Indole-3-butyric acid

mPTS

Membrane PTS

OFP

Orange fluorescent protein

OPDA

Proto-methyl-jasmonic acid

PAP

Purple acid phosphatase

PEX

Peroxin

PLL

POL Like phosphatase

PMP

Peroxisomal membrane protein

POL

POLTERGEIST

PPP

Phospho-protein phosphatases

PP2A

Protein phosphatase 2A

PTD

Peroxisomal targeting domain

PTS1

Peroxisome targeting signal type 1

PTS2

Peroxisome targeting signal type 2

SLP1

Shewanella-like phosphatase 1

TAP46

PP2A phosphatase-associated protein of 46 kDa

TIP41

Tap42-interacting protein

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 621 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (PDF 294 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (PDF 605 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (PDF 319 kb)
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Supplementary material 6 (PDF 357 kb)
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Supplementary material 7 (PDF 270 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Organelle ResearchUniversity of StavangerStavangerNorway

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