Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and nitric oxide signaling enhance poplar defense against chilling stress
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NO acts as the essential signal to enhance poplar tolerance to chilling stress via antioxidant enzyme activities and protein S -nitrosylation modification, NO signal is also strictly controlled by S -nitrosoglutathione reductase and nitrate reductase to avoid the over-accumulation of reactive nitrogen species.
Poplar (Populus trichocarpa) are fast growing woody plants with both ecological and economic value; however, the mechanisms by which poplar adapts to environmental stress are poorly understood. In this study, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification proteomic approach to characterize the response of poplar exposed to cold stress. We identified 114 proteins that were differentially expressed in plants exposed to cold stress. In particular, some of the proteins are involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) metabolism. Further physiological analysis showed that nitric oxide (NO) signaling activated a series of downstream defense responses. We further demonstrated that NO activated antioxidant enzyme activities and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activities, which would reduce ROS and RNS toxicity and thereby enhance poplar tolerance to cold stress. Suppressing NO accumulation or GSNOR activity aggravated cold damage to poplar leaves. Moreover, our results showed that RNS can suppress the activities of GSNOR and NO nitrate reductase (NR) by S-nitrosylation to fine-tune the NO signal and modulate ROS levels by modulating the S-nitrosylation of ascorbate peroxidase protein. Hence, our data demonstrate that NO signaling activates multiple pathways that enhance poplar tolerances to cold stress, and that NO signaling is strictly controlled through protein post-translational modification by S-nitrosylation.
KeywordsCold stress Nitric oxide Poplar Proteome S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase
2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5–tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide
Reactive nitrogen species
Reactive oxygen species
The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this research (Research Group NO. RG 1435-014).
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