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Planta

, Volume 242, Issue 4, pp 761–771 | Cite as

Ecological turmoil in evolutionary dynamics of plant–insect interactions: defense to offence

  • Manasi Mishra
  • Purushottam R. Lomate
  • Rakesh S. Joshi
  • Sachin A. Punekar
  • Vidya S. Gupta
  • Ashok P. GiriEmail author
Review

Abstract

Main conclusion

Available history manifests contemporary diversity that exists in plant-insect interactions. A radical thinking is necessary for developing strategies that can co-opt natural insect-plant mutualism, ecology and environmental safety for crop protection since current agricultural practices can reduce species richness and evenness. The global environmental changes, such as increased temperature, CO 2 and ozone levels, biological invasions, land-use change and habitat fragmentation together play a significant role in re-shaping the plant-insect multi-trophic interactions. Diverse natural products need to be studied and explored for their biological functions as insect pest control agents. In order to assure the success of an integrated pest management strategy, human activities need to be harmonized to minimize the global climate changes.

Plant–insect interaction is one of the most primitive and co-evolved associations, often influenced by surrounding changes. In this review, we account the persistence and evolution of plant–insect interactions, with particular focus on the effect of climate change and human interference on these interactions. Plants and insects have been maintaining their existence through a mutual service-resource relationship while defending themselves. We provide a comprehensive catalog of various defense strategies employed by the plants and/or insects. Furthermore, several important factors such as accelerated diversification, imbalance in the mutualism, and chemical arms race between plants and insects as indirect consequences of human practices are highlighted. Inappropriate implementation of several modern agricultural practices has resulted in (i) endangered mutualisms, (ii) pest status and resistance in insects and (iii) ecological instability. Moreover, altered environmental conditions eventually triggered the resetting of plant–insect interactions. Hence, multitrophic approaches that can harmonize human activities and minimize their interference in native plant–insect interactions are needed to maintain natural balance between the existence of plants and insects.

Keywords

Plant–insect interaction Co-evolution Human interference Ecosystem Climatic change 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Kiran Kulkarni and Dr. D. Shanmugam from CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, India, and Dr. Samuel Bocobza, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel for critical suggestions in the manuscript. MM and RSJ acknowledge the fellowship from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University Grants Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, respectively. PRL is a recipient of Research Associateship of Department of Biotechnology (DBT), and SP is a recipient of SERB-DST Young Scientist Scheme, Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, New Delhi. RSJ would like to acknowledge financial support from Savitribai Phule Pune University, under the DRDP scheme for year 2015–2016. Project funding under CSIR network programs in XII plan (BSC0107 and BSC0120) to CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory is greatly acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manasi Mishra
    • 1
    • 2
  • Purushottam R. Lomate
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rakesh S. Joshi
    • 1
    • 4
  • Sachin A. Punekar
    • 5
    • 6
  • Vidya S. Gupta
    • 1
  • Ashok P. Giri
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Molecular Biology Unit, Division of Biochemical SciencesCSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryPuneIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Organic Chemistry and BiochemistryAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Bioinformatics and BiotechnologySavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  5. 5.Biospheres, EshwariPuneIndia
  6. 6.Naoroji Godrej Centre for Plant ResearchGodrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd., Lawkim Motor GroupSataraIndia

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