, Volume 242, Issue 4, pp 761–771 | Cite as

Ecological turmoil in evolutionary dynamics of plant–insect interactions: defense to offence

  • Manasi Mishra
  • Purushottam R. Lomate
  • Rakesh S. Joshi
  • Sachin A. Punekar
  • Vidya S. Gupta
  • Ashok P. GiriEmail author


Main conclusion

Available history manifests contemporary diversity that exists in plant-insect interactions. A radical thinking is necessary for developing strategies that can co-opt natural insect-plant mutualism, ecology and environmental safety for crop protection since current agricultural practices can reduce species richness and evenness. The global environmental changes, such as increased temperature, CO 2 and ozone levels, biological invasions, land-use change and habitat fragmentation together play a significant role in re-shaping the plant-insect multi-trophic interactions. Diverse natural products need to be studied and explored for their biological functions as insect pest control agents. In order to assure the success of an integrated pest management strategy, human activities need to be harmonized to minimize the global climate changes.

Plant–insect interaction is one of the most primitive and co-evolved associations, often influenced by surrounding changes. In this review, we account the persistence and evolution of plant–insect interactions, with particular focus on the effect of climate change and human interference on these interactions. Plants and insects have been maintaining their existence through a mutual service-resource relationship while defending themselves. We provide a comprehensive catalog of various defense strategies employed by the plants and/or insects. Furthermore, several important factors such as accelerated diversification, imbalance in the mutualism, and chemical arms race between plants and insects as indirect consequences of human practices are highlighted. Inappropriate implementation of several modern agricultural practices has resulted in (i) endangered mutualisms, (ii) pest status and resistance in insects and (iii) ecological instability. Moreover, altered environmental conditions eventually triggered the resetting of plant–insect interactions. Hence, multitrophic approaches that can harmonize human activities and minimize their interference in native plant–insect interactions are needed to maintain natural balance between the existence of plants and insects.


Plant–insect interaction Co-evolution Human interference Ecosystem Climatic change 



We thank Dr. Kiran Kulkarni and Dr. D. Shanmugam from CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, India, and Dr. Samuel Bocobza, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel for critical suggestions in the manuscript. MM and RSJ acknowledge the fellowship from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University Grants Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, respectively. PRL is a recipient of Research Associateship of Department of Biotechnology (DBT), and SP is a recipient of SERB-DST Young Scientist Scheme, Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, New Delhi. RSJ would like to acknowledge financial support from Savitribai Phule Pune University, under the DRDP scheme for year 2015–2016. Project funding under CSIR network programs in XII plan (BSC0107 and BSC0120) to CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory is greatly acknowledged.


  1. Ali JG, Agrawal AA (2012) Specialist versus generalist insect herbivores and plant defense. Trends Plant Sci 17:293–302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altieri MA, Letourneau DK, Stephen J (1984) Vegetation diversity and insect pest outbreaks. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 2:131–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagchi R, Gallery RE, Gripenberg S, Gurr SJ, Narayan L, Addis CE, Freckleton RP, Lewis OT (2014) Pathogens and insect herbivores drive rainforest plant diversity and composition. Nature 506:85–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin IT, Halitschke R, Paschold A, Von dahl CC, Preston CA (2006) Volatile signaling in plant–plant interactions: “Talking Trees” in the genomics era. Science 311:812–815Google Scholar
  5. Becerra JX, Noge K, Venable DL (2009) Macroevolutionary chemical escalation in an ancient plant-herbivore arms race. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA106:18062–18066Google Scholar
  6. Bown DP, Wilkinson HS, Gatehouse JA (1997) Differentially regulated inhibitor-sensitive and insensitive protease genes from the phytophagous insect pest, Helicoverpa armigera, are members of complex multigene families. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 27:625–638CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bravo A, Likitvivatanavong S, Gill SS, Soberón M (2011) Bacillus thuringiensis: a story of a successful bioinsecticide. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 41:423–431PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Broadway RM (1996) Dietary proteinase inhibitors alter complement of midgut proteases. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 32:39–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronstein JL (1994) Our current understanding of mutualism. Q Rev Biol 69:31–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bronstein JL, Alarcon R, Geber M (2006) The evolution of plant–insect mutualisms. New Phytol 172:412–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown TA, Jones MK, Powell W, Allaby RG (2009) The complex origins of domesticated crops in the Fertile Crescent. Trends Ecol Evol 24:103–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cherif M, Loreau M (2013) Plant–herbivore–decomposer stoichiometric mismatches and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Proc Biol Sci. 280:20122453PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chougule NP, Giri AP, Sainani MN, Gupta VS (2005) Gene expression patterns of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteases. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:355–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Christou P, Twyman RM (2004) The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity. Nutr Res Rev 17:23–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Crane PR, Friis EM, Pedersen KR (1995) The origin and early diversification of angiosperms. Nature 374:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crepet WL (2008) The fossil record of angiosperms: requiem or renaissance? Ann Mo Bot Gard 95:3–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Currano ED, Wilf P, Wing SL, Labandeira CC, Lovelock EC, Royer DL (2008) Sharply increased insect herbivory during the paleocene-eocene thermal maximum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:1960–1964PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dawkar VV, Chikate YR, Lomate PR, Dholakia BD, Gupta VS, Giri AP (2013) Molecular insights into resistance mechanisms of lepidopteran insect pests against toxicants. J Proteome Res 12:4727–4737CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dobler S, Dalla S, Wagschal V, Agrawal AA (2012) Community-wide convergent evolution in insect adaptation to toxic cardenolides by substitutions in the Na+K+-ATPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:13040–13045PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Duan JJ, Lundgren JG, Naranjo S, Marvier M (2010) Extrapolating non-target risk of Bt crops from laboratory to field. Biol Lett 6:74–77PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ehrlich PR, Raven PH (1964) Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18:586–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fernandes GW (1994) Plant mechanical defenses against insect herbivory. Rev Bras Entomol 38:421–433Google Scholar
  23. Feyereisen R (1999) Insect P450 enzymes. Annu Rev Entomol 44:507–533CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Frampton GK (1999) Spatial variation in non-target effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos cypermethrin and pirimicarb on Collembola in winter wheat. Pestic Sci 55:875–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gahan LJ, Pauchet Y, Vogel H, Heckel DG (2010) An ABC transporter mutation is correlated with insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin. PLoS Genet 6:e1001248PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gepts PA (2002) Comparison between crop domestication classical plant breeding and genetic engineering. Crop Sci 42:1780–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Giri AP, Harsulkar AM, Deshpande VV, Sainani MN, Gupta VS, Ranjekar PK (1998) Chickpea defensive proteinase inhibitors can be inactivated by podborer gut proteinases. Plant Physio 116:393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gordon DR (1998) Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida. Ecol Appl 8:975–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Green TR, Ryan C (1972) Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in plant leaves: a possible defense mechanism against insects. Science 175:776–777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Harter AV, Gardner KA, Falush D, Lentz DL, Bye RA, Rieseberg LH (2004) Origin of extant domesticated sunflowers in eastern North America. Nature 430:201–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Heckel DG (2012) Insecticide resistance after silent spring. Science 337:1612–1614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hegland SJ, Nielsen A, Lazaro A, Bjerknes A, Totland O (2009) How does climate warming affect plant-pollinator interactions? Ecol Lett 12:184–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Höfte H, Whiteley HR (1989) Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbiol Rev 53:242–255PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hosokawa T, Kikuchi Y, Shimada M, Fukatsu T (2007) Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect. Proc Biol Sci 22:1979–1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jamieson MA, Trowbridge AM, Raffa KF, Lindroth RL (2012) Consequences of climate warming and altered precipitation patterns for plant–insect and multitrophic interactions. Plant Physiol 160:1719–1727PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jersakova J, Johnson SD, Kindlmann P (2006) Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids. Biol Rev 81:219–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jongsma MA, Stiekema WJ, Bosch D (1996) Combatting inhibitor-insensitive proteases of insect pests. Trends Biotechnol 14:331–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Karban R, Baldwin IT (1997) Induced responses to herbivory. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kasting JF, Catling D (2003) Evolution of a habitable planet. Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 41:429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kessler A, Baldwin IT (2001) Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science 1291:2141–2144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klassen W, Schwartz PH (1985) AARS Research Program in Chemical Insect Control,@ Agricultural Chemicals of the Future, BARC Symposium 8, James L. Hilton (ed), Rowman & Allanheld, TotowaGoogle Scholar
  42. Krieger RI, Feeny PP, Wilkinson CF (1971) Detoxification enzymes in the guts of caterpillars: an evolutionary answer to plant defenses? Science 172:579–581CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kumar P, Pandit SS, Steppuhn A, Baldwin IT (2014) Natural history-driven plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46’s role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:1245–1252PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Labandeira CC (1998) Early history of arthropod and vascular plant associations. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 26:329–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Labandeira CC (2013) A paleobiological perspective on plant–insect interactions. Curr Opin Plant Biol 16:414–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Liao C, Peng R, Luo Y, Zhou X, Wu X, Fang C, Chen J, Li B (2007) Altered ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles by plant invasion: a meta-analysis. New Phytol 177:706–714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lindroth RL (2010) Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on forests: phytochemistry trophic interactions and ecosystem dynamics. J Chem Ecol 36:2–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Logan JA, Regniere J, Powell JA (2003) Assessing the impacts of global warming on forest pest dynamics. Front Ecol Environ 1:130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lomate PR, Hivrale VK (2010) Partial purification and characterization of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) active aminopeptidase secreted in midgut. Comp Biochem Physiol-B 155:164–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lomate PR, Hivrale VK (2011) Differential responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases of Helicoverpa armigera to feeding on various host and non-host plant diets. Arthropod Plant Interact 5:359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Magdoff F, Foster JB, Buttel FH, (2000) Hungry for profit: The agribusiness threat to farmers, food, and the environment. NYU Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Mahajan NS, Mishra M, Tamhane VA, Gupta VS, Giri AP (2013) Plasticity of protease gene expression in Helicoverpa armigera upon exposure to multi-domain Capsicum annuum protease inhibitor. Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3414–3420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Malone LA, Burgess EPJ (2000) Interference of protease inhibitors on non-target organisms. In: Michaud D (ed) Recombinant protease inhibitors in plants. Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, pp 89–106Google Scholar
  54. Mcelwain JC, Punyasena S (2007) Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Trends Ecol Evol 22:548–557CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Memmott J, Craze PG, Waser NM, Price MV (2007) Global warming and the disruption of plant–pollinator interactions. Ecology Lett 10:710–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Michener CD (2007) The bees of the world, 2nd edn. The John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  57. Mithofer A, Boland W (2012) Plant defense against herbivores: chemical aspects. Annu Rev Plant Biol 63:431–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mithofer A, Boland W, Maffei ME (2009) Chemical ecology of plant–insect interactions. In: Parker J (ed) Plant disease resistance. Wiley, Chichester, pp 261–291Google Scholar
  59. Mitterboeck TF, Adamowicz SJ (2013) Flight loss linked to faster molecular evolution in insects. Proc Biol Sci 280:20131128PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Nelson WA, Bjornstad ON, Yamanaka T (2013) Recurrent insect outbreaks caused by temperature-driven changes in system stability. Science 341:796–799CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Niklas KJ, Tiffney BH, Knoll AH (1983) Pattern in vascular land plant diversification. Nature 303:614–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nisbet EG, Sleep NH (2001) The habitat and nature of early life. Nature 409:1083–1091CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Nishida R (2002) Sequestration of defensive substances from plants by Lepidoptera. Annu Rev Entomol 47:57–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. O’callaghan M, Glare TR, Burgess EPJ, Malone LA (2005) Effects of plants genetically modified for insect resistance on non-target organisms. Annu Rev Entomol 50:271–292Google Scholar
  65. Oliveira PS, Freitas AV (2004) Ant–plant–herbivore interactions in the neotropical cerrado savanna. Naturwissenschaften 91:557–570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Opitz SE, Müller C (2009) Plant chemistry and insect sequestration. Chemoecology 19:117–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Patankar AG, Giri AP, Harsulkar AM, Sainani MN, Deshpande VV, Ranjekar PK, Gupta VS (2001) Complexity in specificities and expression of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases explains polyphagous nature of the insect pest. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 31:453–464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Percy KE, Awmack CS, Lindroth RL, Kubiske ME, Kopper BJ, Isebrands JG, Pregitzer KS, Hendrey GR, Dickson RE, Zak DR, Oksanen E, Sober J, Harrington R, Karnosky DF (2002) Altered performance of forest pests under atmospheres enriched by CO2 and O3. Nature 420:403–407Google Scholar
  69. Pimentel D, Edwards CA (1982) Pesticides and ecosystems. BioScience 32:595–600Google Scholar
  70. Pimentel D, Acquay H, Biltonen M, Rice P, Silva M, Nelson J, Lipner V, Giordano S, Horowitz A, D’amore M (1992) Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use. BioScience 42:750–760Google Scholar
  71. Potting RP, Vet LE, Dicke M (1995) Host microhabitat location by stem-borer parasitoid Cotesia flavipes: the role of herbivore volatiles and locally and systemically induced plant volatiles. J Chem Ecol 21:525–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Powell JA, Bentz BJ (2009) Connecting phenological predictions with population growth rates for mountain pine beetle an outbreak insect. Landscape Ecol 24:657–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Price PW, Westoby M, Rice B, Atsatt PR, Fritz RS, Thompson JN, Mobley K (1986) Parasite mediation in ecological interactions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 17:487–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Raffa KF, Aukema BH, Bentz BJ, Carroll AL, Hicke JA, Turner MG, Romme WH (2008) Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: the dynamics of bark beetle eruptions. Bioscience 58:501–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Raviv M, Antignus Y (2004) UV radiation effects on pathogens and insect pests of greenhouse-grown crops. Photochem Photobiol 79:219–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Scaven VL, Rafferty NE (2013) Physiological effects of climate warming on flowering plants and insect pollinators and potential consequences for their interactions. Curr Zool 59:418–426PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Scherber C, Gladbach DJ, Stevnbak K, Karsten RJ, Schmidt IK, Michelsen A, Albert KR, Larsen KS, Mikkelsen TN, Beier C, Christensen S (2013) Multifactor climate change effects on insect herbivore performance. Ecol Evol 3:1449–1460Google Scholar
  78. Schlüter U, Benchabane M, Munger A, Kiggundu A, Vorster L, Goulet M, Cloutier C, Michaud D (2010) Recombinant protease inhibitors for herbivore pest control: a multitrophic perspective. J Exp Bot 61:4169–4183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Scott AC, Chaloner WG, Paterson S (1985) Evidence of pteridophyte-arthropod interactions in the fossil record. Proc Biol Sci 86:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scott AC, Stephenson J, Chaloner WG (1992) Interaction and coevolution of plants and arthropods during the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 335:129–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shear WA (1991) The early development of terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 351:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Slack A, Gate J (2000) Carnivorous plants. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  83. Snyder MS, Glendinning JI (1996) Causal connection between detoxification enzyme activity and consumption of a toxic plant compound. J Comp Physiol A 179:255–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Spafford RD, Lortie CJ (2013) Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting? Ecol Evol 3:3347–3358PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Stone GN, Hernandez-lopez A, Nicholls JA, Di pierro E, Pujade-villar J, Melika G, Cook JM (2009) Extreme host plant conservatism during at least 20 million years of host plant pursuit by oak gall wasps. Evolution 63:854–869Google Scholar
  86. Strauss AS, Peters S, Boland W, Burse A (2013) ABC transporter functions as a pacemaker for sequestration of plant glucosides in leaf beetles. eLife 2:e01096Google Scholar
  87. Takhtajan A (1991) Evolutionary trends in flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Tamhane VA, Chougule NP, Giri AP, Dixit AR, Sainani MN, Gupta VS (2005) In vivo and in vitro effect of Capsicum annum proteinase inhibitors on Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1722:156–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Tamhane VA, Giri AP, Sainani MN, Gupta VS (2007) Diverse forms of Pin-II family proteinase inhibitors from Capsicum annuum adversely affect the growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera. Gene 403:29–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Tahvanainen J, Niemela P (1987) Biogeographical and evolutionary aspects of insect herbivory. Ann Zool Fennici 24:239–247Google Scholar
  91. Taylor EL, Taylor TN (1992) Reproductive biology of the Permian Glossopteridales and their suggested relationship to the flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA89:11495–11497Google Scholar
  92. Theiling KM, Croft BA (1988) Pesticide side-effects on arthropod natural enemies: a database summary. Agric Ecosyst Environ 21:191–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Traveset A, Richardson DM (2006) Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms. Trends Ecol Evol 21:208–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Tylianakis JM, Didham RK, Bascompte J, Wardle DA (2008) Global change and species interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 11:1351–1363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Van der putten WH, Macel M, Visser ME (2010) Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change:why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:2025–2034Google Scholar
  96. Visser ME, Holleman LJ (2001) Warmer springs disrupt the synchrony of oak and winter moth phenology. Proc Biol Sci 268:289–294PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Vogel S, Martens J (2000) A survey of the function of the lethal kettle traps of Arisaema (Araceae) with records of pollinating fungus gnats from Nepal. Bot J Linn Soc 133:61–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Von Rad U, Mueller MJ, Durner J (2005) Evaluation of natural and synthetic stimulants of plant immunity by microarray technology. New Phytol 165:191–202Google Scholar
  99. Walling LL (2000) The myriad plant responses to herbivores. J Plant Growth Regul 19:195–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wappler T, Currano ED, Wilf P, Rust J, Labandeira CC (2009) No post-Cretaceous ecosystem depression in European forests? Rich insect-feeding damage on diverse middle Palaeocene plants Menat France. Proc Biol Sci 276:4271–4277PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilf P (2008) Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction. New Phytol 178:486–502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wilf P, Labandeira CC (1999) Response of plant-insect associations to paleocene-eocene warming. Science 284:2153–2155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Zavada MS (1984) Angiosperm origins and evolution based on dispersed fossil pollen ultrastructure. Ann Mo Bot Gard 71:444–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zavala JA, Casteel CL, Delucia EH, Berenbaum MR (2008) Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:5129–5133PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Zavala JA, Nabity PD, Delucia EH (2013) An emerging understanding of mechanisms governing insect herbivory under elevated CO2. Annu Rev Entomol 58:79–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manasi Mishra
    • 1
    • 2
  • Purushottam R. Lomate
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rakesh S. Joshi
    • 1
    • 4
  • Sachin A. Punekar
    • 5
    • 6
  • Vidya S. Gupta
    • 1
  • Ashok P. Giri
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Molecular Biology Unit, Division of Biochemical SciencesCSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryPuneIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Organic Chemistry and BiochemistryAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Bioinformatics and BiotechnologySavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  5. 5.Biospheres, EshwariPuneIndia
  6. 6.Naoroji Godrej Centre for Plant ResearchGodrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd., Lawkim Motor GroupSataraIndia

Personalised recommendations