, Volume 240, Issue 4, pp 877–889 | Cite as

A novel inhibitor of cytokinin degradation (INCYDE) influences the biochemical parameters and photosynthetic apparatus in NaCl-stressed tomato plants

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
  • Nqobile A. Masondo
  • Taofik O. Sunmonu
  • Manoj G. Kulkarni
  • Marek Zatloukal
  • Lukáš Spichal
  • Karel Doležal
  • Johannes Van Staden
Original Article


The effect of 2-chloro-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)aminopurine [inhibitor of cytokinin degradation (INCYDE)] at 10 nM on growth, biochemical and photosynthetic efficiency in sodium chloride (NaCl)-stressed (75, 100 and 150 mM) tomato plants was investigated. NaCl-induced decline in plant vigor index was slightly reversed by both drenching and foliar application of INCYDE. Foliar application of INCYDE significantly increased the flower number in the control and 75 mM NaCl-supplemented plants, while drenching was more effective in 150 mM NaCl-stressed plants. Antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase) were enhanced in the presence of INCYDE in the control and NaCl-stressed plants. Higher concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) associated with oxidative (lipid peroxidation) damage in leaf tissue which was evident in the presence of NaCl stress was significantly attenuated with the drenching and foliar application of INCYDE. Regardless of NaCl concentration, application of INCYDE had no significant influence on maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II. However, the reduced quantum yield of photosystem II and coefficient of photochemical quenching under continuous illumination with actinic light at four intensities (264, 488, 800 and 1,200 µmol m−2 s−1) in NaCl-stressed (100 and 150 mM) tomato plants were significantly alleviated by drenching application with INCYDE. Non-photochemical quenching of the singlet excited state of chlorophyll a and relative electron transfer rate were generally higher in INCYDE-treated plants than in the controls. From an agricultural perspective, these findings indicate the potential of INCYDE in protecting plants against NaCl stress and the possibility of enhanced productivity.


Antioxidant Cytokinins Chlorophyll Solanum Salinity stress Phenolics 



Abscisic acid






Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase


Dry weight


Relative electron transport rate


Maximum fluorescence yield


Minimum fluorescence yield


Variable fluorescence (Fm–Fo)


Maximum quantum efficiency of PSII


Fresh weight


Gallic acid equivalents


Hoagland’s nutrient solution


Inhibitor of cytokinin degradation 2-chloro-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)aminopurine




Sodium chloride


Non-photochemical quenching


Photosynthetically available radiation




Actual quantum yield of photosystem II


Photosystem II


Plant vigor index


Photochemical quenching


Reactive oxygen species


Superoxide dismutase



The Claude Leon Foundation (AOA), National Research Foundation (NAM) and University of KwaZulu-Natal (MGK and TOS), South Africa are thanked for financial support. MZ, LS and KD were supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, Czech Republic (Grant L01204 from the National Program of Sustainability) as well as by IGA of Palacký University (Grant IGA_PrF_2014006). KD and LS also acknowledges the support of the Operational Program Education for Competitiveness—European Social Fund (project CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0165). We sincerely thank Prof R.P. Beckett for his assistance with chlorophyll fluorescence experiments as well as Mrs Alison Young (UKZN Botanical Garden, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa) and her staff for maintaining the greenhouse facilities. We sincerely thank the two anonymous reviewers for their critical and constructive suggestions.

Conflict of interest

We declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
    • 1
  • Nqobile A. Masondo
    • 1
  • Taofik O. Sunmonu
    • 1
  • Manoj G. Kulkarni
    • 1
  • Marek Zatloukal
    • 2
  • Lukáš Spichal
    • 2
  • Karel Doležal
    • 2
  • Johannes Van Staden
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalPietermaritzburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Biology and Genetics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of SciencePalacký University and Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of Czech RepublicOlomoucCzech Republic

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